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143 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Largest and uppermost portion of the brain
Cerebrum
Outer layer of the cerebrum
Cortex
Divided into two hemispheres, which are subdivided into lobes
Cerebrum
Site for conscious thought, memory, reasoning, and abstract mental functions, all localized within specific lobes
Cortex
Located between the cerebrum and the brain stem
Diencephalon
Contains the thalamus and the hypothalamus
Diencephalon
Sorts and redirects sensory input
Thalamus
Maintains homeostasis, controls autonomic nervous system and pituitary gland
Hypothalamus
Anterior region below the cerebrum
Brain stem
Located below the center of the cerebrum
Midbrain
Connects cerebrum and diencephalon with the spinal cord
Brain stem
Has reflex centers concerned with vision and hearing
Midbrain
Connects cerebrum with lower portions of the brain
Midbrain
Anterior to the cerebellum
Pons
Connects cerebellum with other portions of the brain
Pons
Helps to regulate respiration
Pons
Located between the pons and the spinal cord
Medulla Oblongata
Links the brain with the spinal cord
Medulla Oblongata
Has centers for control of vital functions, such as resiration and heartbeat
Medulla Oblongata
Located below the posterior portion of the cerebrum; divided into two hemispheres
Cerebellum
Coordinates voluntary muscles; maintains balance and muscle tone
Cerebellum
Connected with the cerebrum, brain stem, and spinal cord by means of the pons
Cerebellum
Little brain
Cerebellum
Three layers of fibrous membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
Meninges
Outermost layer of the meninges
Dura mater
Thickest and toughest layer of the meninges
Dura mater
Formed by the separation of the dura mater in certain places to provide venous channels for the drainage of blood coming from the brain tissue
Dura sinuses
Middle layer of the meninges
Arachniod
Membrane is loosely attached to the deepest of the meninges by weblike fibers, allowing a space for the movement of CSF
Arachnoid
CSF
cerebrospinal fluid
Innermost layer of the meninges
Pia mater
Layer of the meninges attached to the nervous tissue of the brain and spinal cord
Pia mater
Layer of the meninges that holds blood vessels that supply nutrients and oxygen to the brain and spinal cord
Pia mater
Clear liquid that circulates in and around the brain and spinal cord
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
four chambers in the brain where CSF is formed
Ventricles
Vascular network in the ventricles of the brain that forms CSF by filtration of the blood and by cellular secretion
Choroid plexus
Deep groove that separates the cerebral hemispheres
Longitudinal fissure
Connects the third and fourth ventricles
Cerebral aqueduct
The largest of the four ventricles are located in the two cerebral hemispheres
Lateral ventricles
Extensions of the lateral ventricles into the lobes of the cerebrum
Horns
Small fifth lobe deep within each hemisphere that cannot be seen from the surface
Insula
Folds in the cortex forming elevated portions
Gyri
Shallow grooves that separate the gyri
Sulci
Groove that lies between the the frontal and parietal lobes of each hemisphere at right angles to the longitudinal fissure
Central sulcus
Groove which curves along the side of each hemisphere and separates the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobes
Lateral sulcus
Masses of gray matter located deep within each cerebral hemisphere
Basal nuclei (basal ganglia)
These groups of neurons work with the cerebral cortex to regulate body movement and the muscles of facial expression
Basal nuclei
Neurotransmitter secreted by basal nuclei
Dopamine
An important band of white matter located at the bottom of the longitudinal fissure
Corpus callosum
Bridge between the right and left hemispheres permitting impulses to cross from one side of the brain to the other
Corpus callosum
Compact band of myelinated fibers that carries impulses between the cerebral hemispheres and the brain stem
Internal capsule
Lobe that lies anterior to the central sulcus
Frontal lobe
Area contained within the gyrus just anterior to the central sulcus in the frontal lobe which provides conscious control of skeletal muscles
Primary motor area
Lobe that occupies the superior part of each hemisphere and lies posterior to the central sulcus
Parietal lobe
Area contained within the gyrus just behind the central sulcus in the parietal lobe where impulses from the skin, such as touch, pain, and temperature, are interpreted
Primary sensory area
Lobe in which the estimation of distances, sizes, and shapes takes place
Parietal lobe
Lobe that lies inferior to the lateral sulcus and folds under the hemisphere on each side
Temporal lobe
Area contained within the temporal lobe for receiving and interpreting impulses from the ear
Auditory area
Area located in the medial part of the temporal lobe concerned with the sense of smell
Olfactory area
Lobe that lies posterior to the parietal lobe and extends over the cerebellum
Occipital lobe
The visual area of the occipital lobe contains the two areas for interpreting impulses arising from the retina of the eye
Visual receiving area and Visual association area
Area that detects sound impulses transmitted from the environment
Auditory receiving area
Area surronding the auditory receiving area that interprets the sounds
Auditory association area
Another region of the auditory cortex, functions in speech recognition and the meaning of words
Speech comprehension area (Wernicke area)
The areas for spoken and written communication that lie anterior to the most inferior part of the frontal lobe's motor cortex
Motor areas
Area where the speech muscles in the tongue, the soft palate, and the larynx are controlled
Motor speech area (Broca area)
The retention of bits of information for a few seconds or a few minutes, after which the information is lost unless reinforced
Short term memory
The storage of information that can be recalled at a later time
Long term memory
Interbrain located between the cerebral hemispheres and the brain stem
Diencephalon
Controls the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system as well as the pituitary gland
Hypothalamus
Region along the border between the cerebrum and the diencephalon
Limbic system
System involved in emotional states and behavior
Limbic system
Sea horse shaped gland
Hippocampus
Functions in learning and the formation of long-term memory
Hippocampus
Network that extends along the brain stem and governs wakefulness and sleep
Reticular formation
Composed of the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata
Brain stem
Contains four bodies that act as centers for certain reflexes involving the eye and the ear
Midbrain
Cranial nerves III and IV originate from this portion of the brain
Midbrain
An important connecting link between the cerebellum and the rest of the nervous system
The pons
Contains nerve fibers that carry impulses to and from the centers located above and below it
The pons
Crainial nerves V through VIII originate in this portion of the brain
The pons
Contains the respiratory center, cardiac center, and the vasomotor center
Medulla oblongata
Controls the muscles of respiration in response to chemical and other stimuli
Respiratory center
Regulates the rate and force of the heartbeat
Cardiac center
Regulates the contraction of smooth muscle in the blood vessel walls and thus controls blood flow and blood pressure
Vasomotor center
Made up of three parts: the vermis, and two lateral hemispheres
Cerebellum
Helps coordinate voluntary muscles to ensure smooth, orderly function
Cerebellum
Helps maintain balance in standing, walking, and sitting as well as during more strenuous activities
Cerebellum
Helps maintain muscle tone so that all muscle fibers are slightly tensed and ready to produce changes in position as quickly as neccessary
Cerebellum
Brain study technique that provides photographs of the bone, soft tissue, and cavities of the brain
CT scan
Brain study technique which gives more views of the brain than CT and may reveal tumors, scar tissue, and hemorrhaging not shown by CT
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
Brain study technique that visualizes the brain in action
PET (positron emission tomography)
Instrument used to study electrical activity of the brain
Electroencephalograph
Inflamation of the meninges; usually caused by bacteria or virus
Meningitis
Inflamation of the brain
Encephalitis
Abnormal accumulation of CSF within the brain
Hydrocephalus
The most common kind of brain disorder
Stroke (cerebrovascular accident)
Causes of stroke
Blood clot blocking blood flow to an area of brain tissue
Cerebral hemorrhage
A loss or defect in language communication
Aphasia
A disorder caused by brain damage occurring before or during the birth process
Cerebral palsy
A chronic disorder involving an abnormality of the brain's electrical activity with or without apparent changes in the nervous tissues
Epilepsy
Brain tumors that originate from the neuroglia
Gliomas
Bleeding between the dura mater and the skull usually on the side of the head resulting from a skull fracture causing damage to an artery
Epidural hematoma
A tear in the wall of a dural sinus
Subdural hematoma
Results from a blow to the head or from sudden movement of the brain
Concussion
Bleeding into the brain tissue itself
Intracerebral hematoma
A brain disorder resulting from an unexplained degeneration of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus
Alzheimer disease
The accumulation of brain damage resulting from chronic ischemia
Multi-infarct dementia
A progressive meurologic condition characterized by tremors, rigidity of the limbs and joints, slow movement, and impaired balance
Parkinson disease
Number of paired cranial nerves
12
Four catagories of cranial nerves
Special sensory impulses
General sensory impulses
Somatic motor impulses
Visceral motor impulses
Impulses for smell, taste, vision and hearing locatedin special sense organs in the head
Special sensory impulses
Impulses for pain, touch, temperature, deep muscle sense, pressure, and vibrations; come from receptors widely distributed throughout the body
General sensory impulses
Impulses resulting in voluntary control of skeletal muscles
Somatic motor impulses
Impulses producing involuntary control of glands and involuntary muscles
Visceral motor impulses
Cranial nerves that contain only sensory fibers
I
II
VIII
Cranial nerves that contain all or mostly motor fibers
III
IV
VI
XI
XII
Cranial nerves that contain both sensory and motor nerve fibers; mixed nerves
V
VII
IX
X
I
Olfactory
II
Optic
III
Oculomotor
IV
Trochlear
V
Trigeminal
VI
Abducens
VII
Facial
VIII
Vestibulocochlear
IX
Glosspharyngeal
X
Vagus
XI
Accessory
XII
Hypoglossal
Carries impulses for the sense of smell toward the brain
Olfactory
Carries visual impulses from the eye to the brain
Optic
Controls contraction of eye muscles
Oculomotor
Supplies one eyeball muscle
Trochlear
Carries sensory impulses from eye, upper jaw and lower jaw toward the brain
Trigeminal
Controls eyeball muscles
Abducens
Controls muscles of facial expression; carries sensation of taste; stimulates small salivary glands and lacrimal (tear) gland
Facial
Carries sensory impulses from tongue and pharynx (throat); controls swallowing muscles and stimulates the parotid salivary gland
Glossapharyngeal
Carries sensory impulses for hearing and equilibrium from the inner ear toward the brain
Vestibulocochlear
Supplies most of the organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavities; carries motor impulses to the larynx (voice box) and pharynx
Vagus
Controls muscles in the neck and larynx
Accessory
Controls muscles of the tongue
Hypoglossal
Severe spasmodic pain affecting the fifth cranial nerve
Trigeminal neuralglia