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87 Cards in this Set

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Formed Element
An erythrocyte, leukocyte, or platelet; any cellular component of blood or lymph as opposed to the extracellular fluid component.
Glycosaminoglycan
A polysaccharide composed of modified sugars with amino groups; the major component of a proteoglycan. GAGs are largely responsible for the viscous consistency of tissue gel and the stiffness of cartilage.
Collagen
The most abundant protein in the body, forming the fibers of many connective tissues in places such as the dermis, tendons, and bones.
Epithelium
A type of tissue consisting of one or more layers of closely adhering cells with little intercellular material and no blood vessels; forms the coverings and linings of many organs and the parenchyma of the glands.
Cartilage
A connective tissue with a rubbery matrix, cells (chondrocytes) contained in lacunae, and no blood vessels; covers the articular surfaces of many bones and supports organs such as the ear and larynx.
Exocrine Gland
A gland that secretes its products into another organ or onto the body surface by way of a duct; for example, salivary and gastric glands.
Dendrites
Processes of a neuron that receive information from other cells or from environmental stimuli and conduct signals to the soma. Dendrites are usually shorter, more branched, and more numerous than the axon and are incapable of producing action potentials.
Erethrocyte
A red blood cell.
Histiocyte
A mobile connective tissue macrophate derived from a monocyte.
Hyaluronic Acid
A glycosaminoglycan tht is particularly abundant in connective tissues, where it becomes hydrated and forms the tissue gel.
Capsule
The fibrous covering of a structure such as the spleen or a diarthrosis.
Ectoderm
The outermost of the three primary germ layers of an embryo; gives rise to the nervous system and epidermis.
Infarction
A patch of tissue in an organ such as the heart or brain that has died from lack of blood perfusion; also called an infarct.
Intercalated Disc
A complex of gap junctions and desmosomes that join two cardiac muscle cells end to end, microscopically visible as a dark line, which helps to histologically distinguish this muscle type; functions as a mechanical and electrical link between cells.
Apocrine
Pertaining to certain sweat glands with large lumens and relatively thick, aromatic secretions and to similar glands such as the mammary gland; formerly thought to form secretions by pinching off bits of apical cytoplasm.
Articular Cartilage
A thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the articular surface of a bone at a synovial joint, serving to reduce friction and ease joint movement.
Lacuna
A small cavity or depression in a tissue such as a bone, cartilage, and the erectile tissue.
Gap Junction
A junction between two cells consisting of a pore surrounded by a ring of proteins in the plasma membrane of each cell, allowing solutes to diffuse from the cytoplasm of one cell to the next; functions inlude cell-to-cell nutrient transfer in the developing embryo and electrical communication between cells of cardiac and smooth muscle.
Involuntary
Not under conscious control, including tissues such as smooth and cardiac muscle and events such as reflexes.
Heparin
A polysaccharide secreted by basophils and mast cells that inhibits blood clotting.
Histamine
An amino acid derivative secreted by basophils, mast cells, and some neurons; functions s a paracrine secretion and neurotransmitter to stimulte effects such as gastric secretion, bronchoconstriction, and vasodilation.
Acinus
A sac of secretory cells at the inner end of a gland duct.
Lamella
A little plate, such as the lamellae of bone.
Matrix
The extracellular material of a tissue.
Mesoderm
The middle layer of the three primary germ layers of an embryo; gives rise to muscle and connective tissue.
Fixative
A chemical that preserves tissues from decay, such as formalin.
Lysosome
A membrane-bounded organelle containing a mixture of enzymes with a variety of intracellular and extracellular roles in digesting foreign matter, pathogens, and expired organelles.
Muscle Fiber
One muscle cell, especially of skeletal muscle.
Fibroblast
A connective tissue cell that produces collagen fibers and ground substance; the only type of cell in tendons and ligaments.
Hypertrophy
The growth of a tissue through cellular enlargement, not cellular multiplication; for example, the growth of muscle under the influence of exercise. Compare hyperplasia.
Mucosa
A tissue layer that forms the inner lining of an anatomical tract that is open to the exterior such as the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts; composed of epithelium, connective tissue, and often smooth muscle (muscularis mucosae)
Lobe
A structural subdivision of an organ such as a gland, a lung, or the brain, bounded by a visible landmark such as a fissure or septum.
Endoderm
The innermost of the three primary germ layers of an embryo; gives rise to the mucosae of the digestive and respiratory tracts and to their associated glands.
Adipocyte
A fat cell.
Chondrocyte
A cartilage cell; a former chondroblst that has become enclosed in a lacuna in the cartilage matrix.
Necrosis
Pathological tissue death due to such causes as infection, trauma, or hypoxia. Compare adoptosis.
Neoplasia
Abnormal growth of new tissue, such as a tumor, with no useful function.
Osseous
Pertaining to bone.
Dense Connective Tissue
A fibroconnective tissue with a high density of fiber, relatively little ground substance, and scanty cells; seen in tendons and the dermis, for example.
Parenchyma
The tissue that performs the main physiological functions of an organ, especially a gland, as opposed to the tissues that provide structural support.
Plasma
The noncellular portion of the blood.
Saccule
A saclike receptor in the inner ear with a vertical patch of hair cells, the macular sacculi; senses the orientation of the head and responds to vertical accelleration, as when riding in an elevator or standing up.
Atrophy
Shrinkage of a tissue due to age, disuse, or disease.
Fibroconnective Tissue
Any connective tissue with a preponderance of fiber; also called fibrous connective tissue.
Longitudinal
Oriented along the longest dimension of the body or of an organ.
Fat
A triglyceride molecule.
Ribosome
A granule found free in the cytoplasm or attached to the rough ER, composed of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and enxymes; specialized to read the nucleotide sequence of messenger RNA (mRNA) and assemble a corresponding sequence of amino acids to make a protein.
Lumen
The internal space of a hollow organ such as a blood vessel or the esophagus, or a space surrounded by cells as in a gland acinus.
Osteocyte
A marrow bone cell formed when an osteoblast becomes surrounded by its own matrix and entrapped in a lacuna.
Periosteum
A layer of fibroconnective tissue covering the surface of a bone.
Serous Fluid
A watery, low-protein fluid similar to blood serum, formed as a filtrate of the blood or tissue fluid or as a secretion of serious gland cells; moistens the serous membranes.
Goblet Cell
A mucus-secreting gland cell, shaped somewhat like a wineglass, found in the epithelia of many mucous membranes.
Hyperplasia
The growth of a tissue through cellular multiplication, not cellular enlargement. Compare hypertrophy.
Elastic Fiber
A connective tissue fiber, composed of the protein elastin, that stretches under tension and returns to its original length when released; responsible for the resilience of organs such as the skin and lungs.
Hyaline Cartilage
A form of cartilage with a relatively clear matrix and fine collagen fibers, but no conspicuous elastic fibers or coarse collagen bundles as in other types of cartilage.
Reticular Tissue
A connective tissue composed of reticular cells and reticular fibers, found in bone marrow, lymphatic organs, and in lesser amounts elsewhere.
Skeletal Muscle
Striated voluntary muscle, almost all of which is attached to the bones.
Sphincter
A ring of muscle that opens or closes an opening or passageway; found, for example, in the eyelinds, around the urinary orifice, and at the beginning of a blood capillary.
Interstitial Fluid
Fluid in the interstitial spaces of a tissue, also called tissue fluid.
Subcutaneous
Beneath the skin.
Mucous membrane
A mucosa.
Perichondrium
A layer of fibroconnective tissue covering the surface or hyaline or elastic cartridge.
Endocrine gland
A ductless gland taht secretes hormones into the bloodstream; for example, the thyroid and adrenal glands. Compare exocrine gland.
Fibrosis
A degenerative tissue change in which an excessive amount of fiber is produced, for example, in tuberculosis.
Tight Junction
A zipperlike junction between epithelial cells taht limits the passage of substances between them.
Merocrine
Pertaining to gland cells that release their product by exocytosis; also called eccrine.
Tissue
An aggregation of cells and extracellular materials, usually forming part of an organ and performing some discrete function for it; the four primary classes are muscular, nervous, connective, and epithelial tissue.
Extracellular fluid
Any body fluid that is not contained in the cells; for example, blood, lymph, and tissue fluid.
Gland
Any organ specialized to produce a secretion; in some cases a single cell, such as a goblet cell.
Areolar Tissue
A fibroconnective tissue with loosely organized, widely spaced fibers and cells and an abundance of fluid-filled space; found under nearly every epithelium, among other places.
Lobule
A small subdivision of an organ or of a lobe of an organ, especially of a gland.
Muscularis Mucosae
A layer of smooth muscle immediately deep to the lamina propria of a mucosa.
Tissue Gel
The viscous colloid that forms the ground substance of many tissues; gets its consistency from hyaluronic acid or other glycosaminoglycans.
Trabecula
A thin plate or layer of tissue, such as the calcified trabeculae of spongy bone or the fibrous trabeculae that subdivide a gland.
Visceral Muscle
Single-unit smooth muscle found in the walls of blood vessels and the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts.
Mesothelium
A simple squamous epithelium tht covers the serous membranes.
Osteon
A structural unit of compact bone consisting of a central canal surrounded by concentric cylindrical lamellae of matrix.
Voluntary Muscle
Muscle that is usually under conscious control; skeletal muscle.
Stroma
The connective tissue framework of a gland, lymphatic organ, or certain other viscera, as opposed to the tissue (parenchyma) that performs the physiological functions of the organ.
Integration
A process in which a neuron receives input from multiple sources and their combined effects determine its output; the cellular basis of information processing by the nervous system.
Cardiac Muscle
Striated involuntary muscle of the heart.
Desmosome
A patchlike intercellular junction that mechanically links two cells together.
Intervertebral Disc
A cartilaginous disc between two adjacent vertebrae.
Mast Cell
A connective tissue cell, similar to a basophil, that secretes histamine, heparin, and other chemicals involved in inflammation; often concentrated along the course of blood capillaries.
Histological Section
A thin slice of tissue, usually mounted on a slide and artificially stained to make its microscopic structure more visible.
Histology
The microscopic structure of tissues and organs.
Lamina Propria
A thin layer of areolar tissue immediately deep to the epithelium of a mucous membrane.