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64 Cards in this Set

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Fluid-Mosaic Model
The current theory of the structure of a plasma membrane, depicting it as a bilayer of phospholipids with embedded proteins, many of which are able to move about in the lipid film
Mitochondrion
An organelle specialized to synthesize ATP, enclosed in a double unit membrane with infoldings of the inner membrane called cristae.
Pinocytosis
"Cell Drinking" - A form of endocytosis in which the plasma membrane sinks inward and imbibes droplets of extracelluar fluid or specific molecules concentrated from that fluid.
Ameboid Movement
Movement of a cell by means of pseudopods, in a manner similar to that of an ameba; seen in leukocytes and some macrophages.
Cellular Membrane
Any unit membrane enclosing a cell or organelle.
Axoneme
The core of microtubules, usually in a "9 + 2" array, at the center of a cilium or flagellum.
Carrier-Mediated Transport
A process of transporting materials through a cellular membrane that involves reversible binding to a membrane protein.
Cilium
A hairlike process, with an axoneme, projecting from the apical surface of an epithelial cell; usually motile and serving to propel matter across the surface of an epithelium but sometimes serving sensory roles.
flagellum
A long, motile, usually single hairlike extension of a cell; the tail of a sperm cell is the only functional flagellum in humans.
Apical Surface
The uppermost surface of an epithelial cell, usually esposed to the lumen of an organ.
Dextrose
The D-isomer of glucose; the only form of glucose with a normal role in physiology.
Endocytosis
Any process in which a cell forms vesicles from its plasma membrane and takes in large particles, molecules, or droplets of extracellular fluid; for example, phagocytosis and pinocytosis.
Gate
A protein channel in a unit membrane that can open or close in response to chemical or electrical stimuli, this controlling when substances are allowed to pass through the membrane.
Hypertonic
Having higher osmotic pressure than human cells or some other reference solution and tending to cause osmotic shrinkage of cells.
Fluid-Phase Pinocytosis
A form of endocytosis in which the cell imbibes droplets of extracellular fluid without modifying its composition or concentration.
Intracellular
Within a cell.
Concentration Gradient
A gradual change in chemical conentration from one point to another.
G Protein
A protein of the plasma membrane that is activated by a membrane receptor and, in turn, opens an ion channel or activates an intracellular physiological response; important in linking ligand-receptor binding to second messenger systems.
Ligand-Gated Channel
A channel protein in a plasma membrane that opens or closes when a ligand binds to it, enabling the ligand to determine when substances can enter or leave the cell.
Carrier
A protein in a cellular membrane that performs carrier-mediated transport.
Light Microscope
A microscope that produces images with visible light.
Osmosis
The net diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
Osmotic Pressure
The amount of pressure that would have to be applied to one side of a selectively permeable membrane to stop osmosis; proportional to the concentration of nonpermeating solutes on that side and therefore serving as an indicator of solute concentration.
Golgi Vesicle
A membrane-bound vesicle pinched from the golgi complex, containing its chemical product; may be retained in the cell as a lysosome or become a secretory vesicle that releases the product by exocytosis.
Channel Protein
A protein in the plasma membrane that has a pore through it for the passage of materials between the cytoplasm and extracellular fluid.
Centriole
An organelle composed of two short perpendicular cylinders of microtubules; origin of the mitotic spindle.
Antiport
An active transport carrier that moves two or more solutes in opposite directions through a cellular membrane; for example, the Na+ K+ pump.
Microvillus
An outgrowth of the plasma membrane that increases the surface area of a cell and functions in absorption and some sensory processes; distinguished from cilia and flagella by its smaller size and lack of an axoneme.
Microtubule
An intracellular cylinder composed of the protein tubulin, forming the axonemes of cilia and flagella and part of the cytoskeleton.
Integral Protein
A protein that extends through a plasma membrane and contacts both the extracellular and intracellular fluid.
Actin
A filamentous intracellular protein that provides cytoskeletal support and interacts with other proteins, especially myosin, to cause cellular movement; important in muscle contraction, ciliary and flagellar beating, and membrane actions such as phagocytosis, amoeboid movement, and cytokinesis.
Nucleus
A cellular organelle containing DNA and surrounded by a double unit membrane.
Phagocytosis
A form of endocytosis in which a cell surrounds a foreign particle with pseudopods and engulfs it, enclosing it in a cytoplasmic vesicle called a phagosome.
Pseudopod
A temporary cytoplasmic extension of a cell used for locomotion and phagocytosis.
Reticular Fiber
A fine, branching collagen fiber coated with glycoprotein, found in the stroma of lymphatic organs and some other tissues and organs.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
An extensive system of interconnected cytoplasmic tubules or channels; classified as Rough ER or Smooth ER depending on the presence or absence of ribosomes on its membrane.
Active Transport
The movement of a solute through a cellular membrane, against its concentration gradient, involving a carrier protein that expends ATP.
Facilitated Diffusion
The proess of transporting a chemical through a cellular membrane, down its concentration gradient, with the aid of a membrane carrier that does not consume ATP; enables substances to diffuse through the membrane that would do so poorly, or not at all, without a carrier.
Filtrate
A fluid formed by filtration.
Filtration
A process in which hydrostatic pressure forces a fluid through a selectively permeable membrane.
Cuboidal
A cellular shape that is roughly like a cube or in which the height and width are about equal.
Cytoplasm
The contents of a cell between its plasma membrane and its nuclear envelope, consisting of cytosol, organelles, inclusions, and the cytoskeleton.
Gradient
A difference or change in any variable, such as pressure or chemical concentration, from one point in space to another; provides a basis for molecular movements such as gas exchange, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion.
Inclusion
Any visible object in the cytoplasm of a cell other than an organelle or cytoskeletal element; usually a foreign body or a stored cell product, such as a virus, dust particle, lipid droplet, glcogen granule, or pigement.
Intracellular Fluid
The fluid contained in the cells; one of the major fluid compartments.
Endothelium
A simple squamous epithelium that lines the lumens of the blood vessels, heart, and lymphatic vessels.
Organelle
Any structure within a cell that carries out one of its metabolic roles, such as mitochondria, centrioles, endoplasmic reticulum, and the nucleus; an intracellular structure other than the cytoskeleton and inclusions.
Receptor-Mediated Pinocytosis
A form of endocytosis in which certain molecules in the extracellular fluid bind to receptors in the plasma membrane, these receptors become gathered togther, the membrane sinks inward at that point, and the molecules become incorported into vesicles in the cytoplasm.
Base
A chemical that binds protons from solution; a proton acceptor.
Second Messenger
A chemical that is produced within a cell or that enters a cell in response to the binding of a messenger to a membrane receptor and that triggers a metabolic reaction in the cell.
Selectively Permeable Membrane
A membrane that allows some substances to pass through while excluding others, i.e. the plasma membrane and dialysis membranes.
Golgi Complex
An organelle composed of several parallel cisternae, somewhat like a stack of saucers, that modifies and packages newly synthesized proteins and synthesizes carbohydrates.
Dyenein
A motor protein involved in the beating of cilia and flagella and in the movement of molecules and organelles within cells, as in retrograde transport in a nerve fiber.
Symport
A carrier protein that moves two solutes simultaneously through a plasma membrane in the same direction, such as the sodium-dependent glucose transporter of the small intestine.
Hypotonic
Having a lower osmotic pressure than human cells or some other reference solution and tending to cause osmotic swelling and lysis of cells.
Secondary Active Transport
A mechanism in which solutes are moved through a plasma membrane by a carrier that does not itself use ATP but depends on a concentration gradient established by an active transport pump elsewhere in the cell. Also called cotransport.
Transmission Electron Microscope
A microscope that uses an electron beam in place of light to form high-resolution, two-dimensional images of ultrathin slices of cells or tissues; capable of extremely high magnification.
Unit membrane
Any membrane composed of a bilayer of phospholipids and embedded proteins. A single unit membrane comprises the plasma membrane and encloses many organelles of a cell, whereas double unit membranes enclose the nucleus and mitochondria.
Bulk Transport
The movement of particles or fluid droplets through the plasma membrane by the process of endocytosis or exocytosis.
Cisterna
A fluid-filled space or sac, such as the cisterna chyli of the lymphatic system and a cisterna of the endoplasmic reticulum or golgi complex.
Cytosol
A clear, featureless, gelatinous colloid in which the organelles and other internal structures of a cell are embedded.
Fusiform
Spindle-shaped, elongated, thick in the middle, and tapered at both ends, such as the shape of a smooth muscle cell or a muscle spindle.
Hydrostatic pressure
The physical force generated by a liquid such as blood or tissue fluid, as opposed to osmotic and atmospheric pressures.
Cytoskeleton
A system of protein microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules in a cell, serving in physical support, cellular movement, and the routing of molecules and organelles to their destinations within the cell.