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51 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Denaturation
A change in the three-dimensional conformatino of a protein that destroys its enzymatic or other functional properties, usually caused by extremities of temperature or pH.
Polymer
A molecule that consists of a long chain of identical or similar subunits, such as protein, DNA or starch.
Lactic Acid
A small organic acid produced as an end product of the anaerobic fermentatino of pyrufic acid; a contributing factor in muscle fatigue.
Adenosine Triphosphate
A molecule composed of adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups that functions as a universal energy-transfer molecule.
Glycolysis
A series of anaerobic oxidation reactions that break a glucose molecule into two molecules of pyruvic acid and produce a small amount of ATP.
Hydrolysis
A chemical reaction that breaks a covalent bond in a molecule by adding an -OH group to one side of the bond and -H to the other side, thus consuming a water molecule. Compare to dehydration synthesis.
Fatty Acid
An organic molecule composed of a chain of an even number of carbon atoms with a carboxyl group at one end and a methyl group at the other; one of the structural subunits of triglycerides and phospholipids.
Hydrophobic
Pertaining to molecules that do not attract water or dissolve in it because of their nonpolar nature; such molecules tend to dissolve in lipids and other nonpolar solvents.
Carboxyl Group
An organic functional group with the formula -COOH, found in many organic acids such as amino acids and fatty acids.
Enzyme
A protein that functions as a catalyst.
Catalyst
Any chemical that lowers the activation energy of a chemical reaction and thus makes the reaction proceed more rapidly; a role served in cells by enzymes.
Glycolipid
A phospholipid molecule with a carbohydrate covalently bonded to it, found in the plasma membranes of cells.
Metabolism
The sum of all chemical reactions in the body.
Monosaccharide
A simple sugar or sugar monomer; chiefly glucose, fructose and galactose
Organic
Pertaining to compounds of carbon.
Glycogen
A glucose polymer synthesized by liver, muscle, uterine, and vaginal cells that serves as an energy-storage polysaccharide.
Glycoprotein
A protein molecule with a smaller carbohydrate covalently bonded to it; found in mucus and the glycocalyx of cells, for example.
Peptide Bond
A group of four covalently bonded atoms taht links two amino acids in a peptide.
Polypeptide
Any chain of more than 10 or 15 amino acids.
Moiety
A chemically distinct subunit of a macromolecule, such as the heme and globin moieties of hemoglobin or the lipid and carbohydrate moieties of a glycolipid.
Polysaccharide
A polymer of simple sugars; for example, glycogen, starch, and cellulose.
steroid
A lipid molecule that consists of four interconnected carbon rings; cholesterol and several of its derivatives.
substrate
A chemical that is acted upon and changed by an enzyme.
Peptide
Any chain of two or more amino acids.
Cofactor
A metal ion that binds to an enzyme and activates its catalytic function.
Cholesterol
A steroid that functions as part of the plasma membrane and as a precursor for all other steroids in the body.
Active Site
The region of a protein that binds to a ligand, such as the substrate-binding site of an enzyme or the hormone-binding site of a receptor.
Macromolecule
Any molecule of large size and high molecular weight, such as a protein, nucleic acid, polysaccharide, or triglyceride.
Metabolite
Any chemical produced by metabolism.
Substrate specificity
The ability of an enzyme to bind only one substrate or a limited range of related substrates.
Metabolic pathway
A series of linked chemical reactions, most of which are catalyzed by a separate enzyme; glycolysis, for example.
Surfactant
A chemical that reduces the surface tension of water and enables it to penetrage orher substances more effectively. Examples include pulmonary surfactant and bile salts.
Triglyceride
A lipid composed of three fatty acids joined to a glycerol; also called a triaclglycerol or neutral fat.
Conjugated
A state in which one organic compound is bound to another compound of a different class, such as a protein conjugated with a carbohydrate to form a glycoprotein.
Conformation
The three-dimensional structure of a protein that results from interaction amont its amino acid side groups, its interactions with water, and the formation of disulfide bonds.
Amino Acids
Small organic molecules with an amino group and a carboxyl group; the monomers of which proteins are comprised.
Adipose Tissue
A connective tissue composed predominantly of adipocytes; fat.
Aerobic Exercise
Exercise in which oxygen is used to produce ATP; endurance exercise.
Dehydration Synthesis
A reaction in which two chemical monomers are joined together with water produced as a by-product; also called a condensation reaction. Compare to hydrolysis.
Glycocalyx
A layer of carbohydrate molecules covalently bonded to the phospholipid and protein molecules of a plasma membrane; forms a surface coat on all human cells.
Hydrophilic
Pertaining to molecules that attract water or dissolve in it because of their polar nature.
Functional Group
A group of atoms, such as a carboxyl or amino group, tht determines the functional characteristics of an organic molecule.
Glycerol
A viscous three-carbon alcohol that forms the structural backbone of triglyceride and phospholipid molecules; also called glycerin.
Enzyme Amplification
A series of chemical reactions in which the product of one step is an enzyme that produces an even greater number of product molecules at the next step, resulting in a rapidly increasing amount of reaction product. Seen in hormone actin and blood clotting for example.
Maltose
A disaccharide composed of two glucose monomers.
Cohesion
The clinging of identical molecules such as water to each other.
Insulin
A hormone produced by B cells of the pancreatic islets in response to a rise in blood glucose concentration; accelerates the glucose uptake and metabolism by most cells of the body, thus lowering the blood glucose concentration.
Monomer
One of the identical or similar subunits of a larger molecule in the dimer to polymer range; for example, the glucose monomers of starch, the amino acids of a protein, or the nucleotides of DNA.
Lipase
An enzyme that hydrolyzes a triglyceride into fatty acids and glycerol.
Neutral Fat
A triglyceride.
Disaccharide
A carbohydrate composed of two simple sugars joined by a glycosidic bond; for example, lactose, sucrose, and maltose.