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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anatomy
the study of the structure of the body and the relationship of the parts
physiology
study of functions of body and its parts
the process of science
Propose Hypothesis
Design Experiments
Collect and analyze data
Redefine Experiment
Accept as theory
Accept as law
Level of Organization
Atom-->molecule-->cytoplasm-->organelle-->cellular -->tissue level-->organ level-->system level
Endomorph
Mesomorph
Ectomorph
Heavy rounded (apple/pear)
Muscular
Thin, Fragile
Characteristics of life
Responsiveness, Conductivity, Growth, Respiration, Digestion, Absorption, Secretion, Excretion, Circulation, Reproduction
Support and Movement
Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular
Communication, Control, and integration
nervous, endocrine
Transportations and defense
Cardiovascular, lymphatic
Respiration, nutrition and excretion
Respiratory, digestive, urinary
reproduction and development
reproductive
integumentary
skin-protection, temperature regulation, sensation
skeletal
bones, ligaments- support, protection, movement, mineral and fat storage, blood production
muscular
skeletal muscles, tendons-movement, posture, heat production
nervous
brain, spinal chord, nerves, sensory organs-control, regulation and coordination of other systems, sensation, memory
endocrine
pituitary gland, adrenals, pancreas, thyroid, parathyroid-control and regulation of other systems
cardiovascular
heart, arteries, vens, capillaries- exchange and transport of materials
lymphatic
lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, spleen, thymus, tonsils- immunity, fluid balance
respiratory
lungs, bronchial tree, trachea, larynx, nasal cavity- gas exchange, acid-base balance
digestive
stomach, small and large intestines, esophagus, liver, mouth, pancreas-breakdown and absorption of nutrients, elimination of waste
urinary
kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra-excretion of waste, fluid and electrolyte balance, acid-base balance
reproductive
males: testes, vas deferens, penis
females: ovaries, fallopian tubes, vagina, breasts

reproduction
homeostasis
standing or staying the same

every regulatory mechanism exists to maintain homeostasis of internal fluid environment
body temp: 98.6
basic components of control mechanisms
1. sensor mechanisms (brain, spinal chord)
2. Integrating or control center
3. Effector Mechanism
4. Feedback
afferent
signal moving toward
*nerve impulse or hormone is AFFERENT signal
Efferent
Signal moving away
Causes and EFFECT (effectors)
Organs, muscles or glands are EFFERENT targets
Negative Feedback Control Systems
Inhibitory, oppose a change by creating a response opposite in direction of stimulus
responsible for maintaining a constant internal environment
Example: oppose a change (drop in temperature) by creating a response (production of heat)
Positive Feedback Control Systems
Stimulatory, pushes system onward until stimulus goes away; amplify change occuring

Example: sneezing, child birth

if was negative would come back
Lateral
Toward the side; away from the midsagittal plane

Example: The eyes are LATERAL to the nose
Medial
Toward the midsagittal plane; away from the side

Example: the eyes are MEDIAL to the ears
Anterior
Toward the front of the body

Example: The nose is on the ANTERIOR of the head
Posterior
Toward the back (rear)

Example: The heel is POSTERIOR to the head
Superior
Toward the top of the body

Example: The shoulders are SUPERIOR to the hips
Inferior
Toward the bottom of the body

Example: The stomach is INFERIOR to the heart
Transverse Plane
Cuts you in the upper and lower half at the waist
Frontal Plane
Cuts you in the middle along your sides (separates back and chest)
Sagittal Plane
Cuts your face in half, one eye on each side
Proximal
On Legs-closer to thigh
On Arms-Closer to shoulder
Distal
On legs-Closer to feet
On Arms-Closer to finger tips