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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Regulation of body temp, pressure, sugar, fluids
Feedback mechanisms
Maintain stable internal environment
Body Cavities
Dorsal- cranial(meninges) and vertebral
Ventral- Thoracic- right/left pleural, pericardial, abdominopelvic- abdominal and pelvic
stable suspension of large molecules (sugar/proteins) No real colloid in human body dt temperature
Protoplasm- percentages
In living organisms: C-18 H-10, O-65, N-3
Average in human body- C-10, H-63, O-26, N-1.4
=molex x #of particles
example: one mol of NaCl= 2 osmoles
Cytoskeleton- Four types of Internal Protein
1. Microfil-actin (stren&move)
2.interm fil- myosin
3. thick fil- bundles of myosin
4. Microtub- tubulin- strength and rigidity to spindles and centrioles.
Lipid comp. of cell membran
1. phospholipid bilayer- polar head (phos) non plar tails seldom flip flop
2. glycolips- cell recog and commun, attached-toxins
3. cholesterol- stiff rings, decrease flex, increase strength
Protein Comp. of cell mem
Proteoglycans, glycoproteins, integral, peripheral
Gen of ATP- Phosphorylation
Addition of phosphate grp and it raises energy level of molecule.
Oxidative Phosp
electrons are remoed from organic compounds usually by NAD+ and passed thru series of electron acceptors tooxygen or other inorganic molecules.
ions which bind to enzyme to complete the active site for binding to the substrate.
nonmprotein organic molecule used to complete active site
1 glycerol +3 FA
Beta Oxidation
series of rxn in which 2c units are removed from the FA chain and later combined with CoA for Kreb cycle
St. squamous
many layers, named bec of cell surface, basal layers mitotic activity, mourishment from underlying ct bv
St. squamouse- fxn location
keratinized- waterproofing skin
nonkeratin- moist, esop, vagina
St. columnar
multilayered column, secretion male ureth, mam gland
protection- conjuntiva
appears multilayered nuclei at diff levels unequal distribution
protection- lining air pass. larynx sinus, nasal cavity
Connective tissue
Most abund and widely dist of primary tissues
Supports, connect,prtects, fills spaces, provides framework, produces blood cells, helps repair tissues and fight infection
Connective tissue fibers
1. collagenous- thick white threadlike prtein (collagen) found mainly in dense ct- tensile strength. Found in fibrous ct- tendons, ligaments, eyes, skin
Elastic fibers- walls of hollow organs
Reticular fibers- supporting networks- liver, spleen
Types of ct
loose (areolar) thin, binds organs together, beneath skin and btwn muscles
dense fibrous- regand irreg
provedes support and framework for various parts
1. Hyaline- most widespread
2. Elastic- abd yellow fibers
3. fibrocart- bundles of white fibers (collagen) intervertebral discs
intercellular matrix of bone contains mineral salts (2/3) and collagen (1/3) compact and spongy
consists of cells suspended in fluid
plasma cells, blood cells
Reticuloendothelial tissue
consists of variet of phagocytic cells dist. in body organs.
cellular defense of body against invasion of microorganisms
Muscle tissue- contractile- moves parts attached to it
voluntary- conscious control, threadlike fibers, alternating bands, striated
tissue found in walls of hollow internal organs, invol fibers and eyes
heart, inter discs made of desmosomes and gap allow for comm No repair b/c lack of satellite cells, involuntary
located in brain spinal and peri nerves. function in coordinating and regulating body activites- primary form of communication
PNS- Schwann
Membranes of the body
serous mem line the body cavities that lack openings to the outside. Consist of a layer of simple squamous epi. covering a thin layer of l ct which secreteres serous fluid for lub mem surf
Integumentary system
composed of epidermis and dermis and a sub. layer beneath
Types of cells located in epidermis?
1. keratinocytes- resp for structural strength and imperm
2 melanocytes- 800-2000 skin color and regional difference
3 langerhans -phagocytes
4 Merkels disc- tactile receptor
Stratum Germinativum (basale)
1-2 layers- cuboidal large stem cells, highly mitotic, 30-45 days for replacement. Merkel cells: fine or light touch
Stratum Spinosum
8-10 cells thick "spiny) Langerhans- denfense vs micro and skin cancer. Keratinocytes bound by desmosomes
stratum granulosum
3-5 layers of keratinocytes "grainy layer" large quant of keratohyalin- promotes dehydration
3-5 layers of flattened cells- present in palms. Densely packed filled with eleidin
Stratum Corneum
cornification- 25-30 layers of flat scale-like cells that form a waterproof layer. Kera occurs everywhere on exposed skin. 15-30 days to move from germ to corn
layer of largely fibrous ct that binds the epidermis to underlying tissues. contains muscle fibers, bv and nerve fibers. Dermal bv supply nut to skin cells and reg body temp
Layers of Dermis
1. Papillary- ordinary loose ct, elastic fivers, exten cap network provieds nourish for epi and produces ridges in ep giving rise to prints

2. reticular layer- dense irregular
subcutaneous layer
composed of lct and adipose. Adipose- conserve body heat. layer conatains bv that supply skin. young skin elastic- older less elastic- wrinkles
Structure of hair follicle
1. Papilla- cap and projection at end of tube for nourishment of rapid cell division
2. cortex- contains cuticle and elongated layer of cells with pigment and keratin
3. medulla- central cavity
Sebaceous glands
secrete sebum which helps keep skin and hair soft and waterproof. Secreted into hair follicles thru short ducts
Sweat glands
located in nearly all regions of skin- each gland consists of coiled tube. Apocrine glands respond to emo stress (axillary) Eccrine respond to elevated body temp
Sweat primarily water, also contains salt and waste products
Major cell in cartilage
chondrocyte, "cartilage cell" in lacunae dense non cellular matrix with major fibers, organic
Carilage membrane?
perichondium (contains bv)
Cartilage information
lacks bv and nerves, nutrients reach cells and wastes move by diffusion thru matrix(low to heal)
Cartilage structure
chondoblast located in lacuna, cluster of chondrocytes is an isogenic nest. matrix pushes apart.
Functions of cartilage
provides support and framework for various parts
most widespread, clear glassy matrix, white fibbers(collagen and a lil elast) covers ends of bones in joints CANT
Elastic cartilage
yellow fivers ELA
bundles of white fibers (collagen) intervertebral discs
Appositional- fxn of perichondrium- wrapping
INterstitial- added btw lacunae
Function of muscle tissue?
contation, movement, heat pressure movement of blood
skeletal muscle
voluntary, long threadlike fibers, multinucleated, alternating bands, striated, sarcolemma- membrane of muscle cell cannot divide but can repair via satellite cells tied together by lct
smooth muscle
tissue found in walls of hollow internal organs, involuntary fibers, in eyes. Single nucleous- can divide therefore can repair Nonstriated involuntary muscle
heart- cells joined by intercalated discs and arranged in branched, interconnecting networks, involuntary, no repair b/c no satellite cells, not nervous system dependent
Dermis layers
1. Papillary- lct, elastic fibers, extensive cap. network provides nourishment for epi and produces ridges- prints
2. Reticular- dense irregular
Subcutaneous layer compositions?
lct (c&e) and adipose tissue- helps conserve body heat. this layer contains bv that supply skin
1.carotene- st.corneum, fat in dermis
2 melanin- melanocytes, melanin localized around nucleus
Hair follicles: characteristics?
1. hair in nearly all regions of skin
2. as newly formed cells develop and grow, older cells pushed toward surgace and undergo keratin.
3. each hair develops from epidermal cells at base of tube like hair follicle
4. hair color determened by type and amnt of pigment
6. A bundle of smooth muscle cells (arrector pilli) and one or more sebaceous glands are attached to each hair follicle
structure of follicle?
1. papilla- cap and projection at end of tube for nourishment of rapid cell division
2. cortex- contains cuticle and elongated laer of cells with pigment and keratin
3. medualla- central cavity sometimes not present
sebaceous glands
secrete sebum- skin hair soft and waterproof secreted into hair follicles thru short ducts
sweat glands- location, types, structure?
located in nearly all regions of skin, each gland consists of coiled tube, aprocrine- emotional stress..axillry- interact w/bacteria:odor Eccrine glands- respond to elevated body temp
Free nerve endings
pain and fine touch- dermis
Nociception (pain) (no myelin)
Merkels disc
fine touch- epidermis (no myelin)
tactice corpuscle- fine touch dermis/papillary action potential, lips eyelids fingertips
cold and crude- dermis and hypo
hot and crude- dermis and hypo
pressure- hypo and subQ
Function of skin: protection
40-60 days slough
UV light
Serum fats, cholest. protein
Keratinocytes 90%
Melanocytes 8%
skin: excretion
salts and compounds sweat sebum
skin- immunity
Lanterhans Helper T
early damage by UV
Hydrocortisone- decrease inflamation
skin: blood reservoir
body temp via rad/evap
Skin synthesis
Vit D- uses small amnts of UV light melanin keratin
skin- absorption
abs of O2 CO2, steroid horomones, alkaline fat soluable vitamins
skin- homeostasis
regulaiton of body temp Thermoregulation
Regulation of body temp
vital b/c heat affect rates of metabolic rxn Normal temp 37c
contin circulation of air over a warm surface
heat loss and muscles?
skeletal muscles are stimulated to contract involuntarily- increases cellular respiration and produces additional heat
inhibits synthesis of prostaglandins and thus allows for a reset of hypothalamus
Exocrine: unicellular
a single secretory cell- Goblet cell
Multicellular simple-
gland consisting of many cells galnds communicate with surface by means of unbranched ducts
Multicellular- simple tubular
straight tube like gland that opens diretly onto surface, short duct- intestinal glands
Multicellular- Simple coiled tubular
long coiled tube like gland long duct- eccrine glands
simple branched
secretory portions of gland expand into saclike compartments- sebaceious glands
compound exocrine
glands comm with surface by means of branched ducts- mucous and salivary