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63 Cards in this Set

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spinal cord
continuation of the brain stem
lumbar puncture
procedure of sticking a hollow needle into the subarachnoid space between 13 and 14 above the level of the tomp of the hop bone
gray matter
location in the center of the spinal cord, shaped like a butterfly, composed of cell bodies and internuerons
central canal
opening, or hole, that extends the entire length of the spinal cord located in the middle of the gray matter
white matter
coposed of primarily myelinated axons
nerve tracts
the neuronal axons grouped together
ascending tracts
sensory tracts carry information frm the brain down the spinal cord, and toward the brain
descending tracts
motor tracts carrying information from the brain down the spinal cord and toward the peripheral
pyramidal tract
aka corticospinal tract, major motor tract origination in the frontal lobe of cerebruminfo is carried from the cortical region of the brain toward the spinal cord
corticospinal tract
aka pyramidal tract
2 major decending tracts
pyramidal and extrapyramidal tracts
spinal nerves
attatched to spinal nerve 2 root dorsal and ventral root
sensory nerve
fibers from the periphery travel to the cord through the dorsal root.
dorsal root
sensory nerve of a spinal nerve as it attatches to the spinal cord
dorsal root ganglia
cell bodies of the sensory fibers are gathered together
ventral root
composed of motor fibers distributed to muscles and glands
mixed nerves
spinal nerves that contain both sensory and motor fibers all spinal nerves
functions of the spinal cord
sensory pathway; motor pathway; reflex center
what are reflexes
an involuntary response to a stimulus
patellar
aka knee-jerker physical examination doctor taps the tendon below your kneecap.
reflex arc
the nerve pathway involved in a reflex 4 parts: receptor; afferent neuron; efferent neuron; effector organ
afferent nueron
nerve impulse is carried by the sensory neuron to the spinal cord
receptor
by the tendon the mallet stimulates sensory receptors in the thigh muscles
efferent nueron
the nerve imipulse is carried by a motor nerve to the muscles of the thigh
effector organ
the muscles of the thigh specifically the quadriceps femoris are effector organs, the muscles contract and move the lower leg in an upward movement
pupillary reflex
regulates the amount of light that enters the eye
baroreceptor reflex
causes the heart and blood vessels to respond in a way that restores the blood pressure to normal
Babinski reflex
stroking the lateral sole of the foot in the direction of heel to toe with a hard blunt object
peripheral nervous system
consists of the nerves and ganglia located outside the CNS
nueron
single nerve cell
nerve
contains many neurons bundled together with blood vessels and then wrapped in connective tissue located outside cns
tracts
bundles of nerve fibers are called tracts
sensory nerves
compsed only of sensory neurons
motor nerves
composed only of motor neurons
mixed nerves
containing both sensory and motor neurons
cranial nerves
twelve parts have a specific number always designated by a roman numberal and name.
oh!oh!oh! tough tricky anatomy final very grave vibes aching head
1 olfactory 2 optic 3 oculomotor 4 trochlear 5 trigeminal 6 abducens 7 facial 8 vestibulocochlear 9 glossopharyngeal 10 vagus 11 accessory 12 hypoglossal
olfactory nerve
sensory nerve that carries informationfrom the nose to the brain
optic nerve
carries visual information from the eye to the brain
decussation
nerve tracts cross over from one side to the other
extrapyramidal tract
skeletal muscle activity (balance and posture)
descending
spinalthalamic
temperature; pressure; pain; light; touch
ascending
dorsal column
ascending; proprioception; deep pressure; vibration
spinocerebellar
proprioception; ascending
achilles tendon reflex
ankle-jerk relfex
oculomotor nerve
III movement of eyeball, raising of eyelid; change pupil size
trochlear nerve
IV movement of eyeball
trigeminal nerve
V chewing food; sensations in face; scalp, cornea, and teeth
abducens nerve
Vi movement of eyeball
facial nerve
VII a mixed nerve that performs mostly motor function of the face
Vestibulocochlear nerve
VIII sensory nerve that carries information for hearing and balance from inner ear to the brain
glossopharyngeal nerve
IX mixed nerve that carries taste sensation from the posterior tongue to the brain
vagus nerve
X mixed nerve that innervates the tongue, pharyns, larynx, and many organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavities
accessory nerve
XI motor nerves that controll movement of the head and shoulder regions
which cranial nervese are sensory
1st, 2nd, and 8th the rest are mixed
spinal nerves are listed how
numbered according to the level of the spinal cord 8-cervical 12-thoracic nerves 4-lumbar nerves 5- sacral nerves 1-coccygeal nerve
cauda equina
lumbar and sacral nerves at the bottom of the cord that look like a horse's tail
plexuses
nerve fibers converge, or come together again (networks)3 major plexuses
3 major plexuses
cervical plexus
brachail plexus
lumbosacral plexus
cervial plexus
c1-4 skin an dmuscles of the nexk and shoulder; diaphragm
brachial plexus
c4-8, t1
skin and muscle of the upper extremities
lumbosacral plexus
t12, L1-5, s1-4
skin and muscle of lower torso and lower extremities
dermatome
each spinal nerv innervates a particular area of the skin this distribution of nerves are a dermotome