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147 Cards in this Set

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What are the components of the Scientific Method?
* Observation
* Hypothesizing
* Expirimentation
Gross Anatomy or Macroscopic Anatomy refers to:
Large body STRUCTURES observed with the naked eye
Regional anatomy refers to:
all structures in a specific part of the body
Systemic anatomy refers to:
structures by systems. ex: skeletal would study bones
Surface anatomy refers to:
study of internal structures as they can be recognized by the overlying skin surface
Cytology
study of cells
Histology
Study of tissues
Physiology
Study of function
Three embryonic germ layers?
1. Ectoderm - outermost
2. Mesoderm - middle
3. Endoderm - inner
Ectoderm
Outermost germ layer develops into nervous system, pituitary gland, and outer most skin
Mesoderm
Middle germ layer develops into muscles, connective tissue, ovaries, testes and dermis
Endoderm
Inner germ layer develops into linings of digestive system, thyroid gland, thymus gland, pancreas and liver
derm-
skin
Germ layer
one of the primary layers of an embryo from which the definitive tissues and organs develop
Smallest level of organization in an organism
Atom
Metabolism
All chemical reactions within the body
Catabolism
breaking bonds
Anabolism
building bonds
Aerobic Respiration
utilization of stored chemical bond energy to allow cells to do work, taking in O2 and giving off CO2
Anaerobic
does not utilize O2
Absorption
Movement of a substance through an epithelial mucous membrane or through a cutaneous keratinized membrane of the skin
Assimilation
incorporation of absorbed molecules by cells into a different form
Hyperplasia
Increase in cell number
Hypertrophy
Increase in cell size
Homeostasis
Physiological state of balance within and between body systems
Five needs of Organisms
1. Water
2. Food
3. O2
4. Heat
5. Pressure
Pressure
Application of force on some structure, for example: atmospheric=air pressure, hydrostatic=water pressure
Diffusion
Substance moves from regions of high concentration to regions of low
Facilitated Diffusion
where membrane protiens assist substance across membrane.
Osmosis
diffusion of solvent through cell membrane (ex. water)
The cell membrane contains more _______ by weight.
Protein
In order from largest to smallest, the makeup by weight of the cell membrane:
protein, lipid, carbohydrate
By volume, much more of the cell membrane is _______
lipid
________ is less dense than protein, thus there is more protein by weight in the cell membrane.
Lipid
Integral Proteins
Involved in channel formation and movement within membrane
Peripheral Proteins
Receptors and Identification on outside of cell membrane
Lipids making up cell membrane
Fat, phospholipid and cholesterol primarily
Carbohydrates
Sugars and starches
Glycoproteins
Carbohydrate molecules attached to proteins on the outer surface of the cellular membrane and "mark" the cell as part of a particular tissue or organ
The makeup of the cytoplasm
Semifluid with inclusions and suspensions
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Two types inside cytoplasm, rough and smooth
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Marked with ribosomes, which manufactore proteins
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Lack ribosomes, contain enzymes important in lipid synthesis, absorption of fats, and metabolism of drugs
Ribosomes
Site of protein synthesis
Golgi apparatus
flattened sacs, packagees protein molecules produced in Rough ER for transport/secretion
Mitochondrion
membranous sacs with inner partition, release energy from nutrient molecules and turn them into usable form
The Powerhouse of the cell
Mitochondrion
Lysosomes
Digest worn cellular parts or substances that enter cells
Centrosome
rod like structures that distribute chromosomes to new cells during cell division
Cilia
propel fluid over cellular surfaces
Flagella
enable sperm to move
Pseudopodia
False feet
Vesicles
Contain and transport substances
Microfilaments and Microtubules
thin rods and tubules that support cytoplasm and help move substances and organelles
Nuclear Envelope
double membrane around nucleus that maintains it integrity
Nucleolus
dense nonmembranous body made of protein and RNA, site of ribosome synthesis
Chroma
color
Chromatin
composed of protein and DNA, seen in cells not dividing as grainy material.
DNA is seen in dividing cells as:
chromosomes
Mitosis or Karyokinesis
nuclear division
Cytokinesis
cytoplasmic division
Mitosis or Karyokinesis + cytokinesis =
Cell division
Apoptosis
cell death
Enzymes
Biocatalyst, makes reaction occur faster without being consumed
Substrates
particular chemical that can only be acted on by particular enzymes
Four types of tissues
epithelium, connective, muscle, nerve
Epithelium tissue locations
Body surfaces, lining of resp/digestive tracts, body cavities, hollow organ, glands
Two types of glandular epithelium
Exocrine and endocrine
-crine
secrete
Exocrine epithelium
secretes into ducts
Endocrine epithelium
no ducts, secrete directly into bloodstream, creates hormones
Functions of epithelium
protection, absorption, secretion, excretion
simple squamous epithelium
Flat cells, serous membranes with fried egg appearance
_______ houses genetic material and controls cellular activities
nucleus
Perform specific functions, dividing labor of cell
Organnelles
Composed mainly of lipids, proteins, and a small number of carbohydrates
Cell membrane
Cell membrane bilayer is impermeable to ______
water soluble molecules
A cell membrane includes a few kinds of lipid molecules but many kinds of _________
proteins
Examples of functions of cell membrane proteins
Receptors to bind hormones or growth factors, transport of ions or molecules across membrane, selective channels
carbohydrates may attach to proteins on outer surface of membrane to form _______
glycoproteins
Mark the cell as part of a particular tissue or organ in a particular person
glycoproteins
The system of protein rods and tubules within the cytoplasm
cytoskeleton
provides a vast tubular network that transports molecules from one cell part to another
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Participates in the synthsis of protein and lipid molecules
Endoplasmic reticulum
Give rough ER the textured appearance
Ribosomes
Sites of protein synthesis, exist independently in cytoplasm and associated with ER
ribosomes
Contains enzymes important in lipid synthesis, absorption of fats from digestive tract, and metabolism of drugs
Smooth ER
Ribosomes are composed of
protein and RNA molecules
This organelle refines, packages, and delivers proteins synthesized on ribosomes associated with ER
Golgi apparatus
Major sites of chemical reactions that transform energy into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a chemical the cell can use
Mitochondria
Powerhouse of the cell
Mitochondria
Garbage disposals of the cell
Lysosomes
During mitosis, they deliver chromsomes to newly forming cells
Centrosome
tiny, hairlike structures that move fluid over the cell
Cilia
Seen only on sperm as the tail, moves cell
Flagella
small, dense body composed largely of RNA and protein, ribosome formed inside then migrate to cytoplasm
Nucleolus
Consists of loosely coiled fibers of DNA and protein called chromosomes
Chromatin
Loosely coiled fibers of DNA and protein
chromosomes
Process of molecules or particles too large to enter cell through diffusion or active transport being conveyed within a vesicle
Endocytosis
Process of secreting a substance stored in a vesicle from a cell
Exocytosis
Process of cells taking in tiny droplets of liquid from surrounding as cell membrane indents
Pinocytosis
Process of cell taking in solid as cell membrane indents
Phagocytosis
Process of taking in specific kinds of particles by those particles binding with proteins on outside of cell
receptor mediated endocytosis
Division of the nucleus
Mitosis
Division of the cytoplasm
cytokinesis
mitosis + cytokinesis =
cell division
Double layer, lipid membrane that houses nucleus
Nuclear Envelope
Form of cell death, normal part of development
Apoptosis
The buildup of larger molecules from smaller ones, requires energy
Anabolism
The breakdown of larger molecules into smaller ones, releases energy
Catabolism
Complex molecules, almost always proteins, promote chemical reactions within the cells by lowering the amount of energy
Enzymes
Each enzyme acts only on a particular chemical called its _______
substrate
Four types of tissue
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nervous
These tissues protect, secrete, absorb, and excrete
Epithelial tissues
These tissues bind, support, protect, fill, store fat, and produce blood cells
Connective tissue
Common site of diffusion and filtration, these cells are flat
Simple Squamous epithelium
Composed of cells specialized to produce and secrete substances into ducts or into bodily fluids
Glandular Epithelium
Glands that secrete their products into ducts that open onto surfaces
Exocrine glands
Glands that secrete their products into tissue fluid or blood
Endocrine glands
Six types of connective tissue
Bone, Cartilage, Areolar(Loose), White fibrous, adipose, and blood
This connective tissue forms delicate, thin membranes throughout the body
Loose or Areolar
This connective tissue, also known as fat, is formed when certain cells store fat in their cytoplasm and enlarge
Adipose
This connective tissue is made of dense collagenous fibers. Ex. tendons/ligaments
White fibrous, or dense connective tissue
Most rigid connective tissue
Bone
Connective tissue that connects bone to bone
Ligaments
Dense connective tissue that connects muscle to bones
tendons
Two types of muscle functions
voluntary or involuntary
Tissues that are able to contract with specific stimuli
Muscle tissues
Two types of muscle tissue structures
Striated and Smooth
Central Nervous System includes
Brain and spine
All nerve locations besides brain and spine
Peripheral nerves
Connective tissue of the nervous systems
Neuroglia
Superior
above
Inferior
below
Ventral
front
Dorsal
back
Afferent
going in
Efferent
coming out
caudal
tail
ipsilateral
same side
contralateral
opposite sides
Acromial
point of the shoulder
antebrachium
the forearm
antecubital
space in front of the elbow
axillary
armpit
bracial
arm
buccal
cheek