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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the internal environment remains distinct from the external, t/f
How is the cellular level seperated?
plasma membrane
how do cells reproduce?
an original cell divides and produces two identical daughter cells
What are the 5 survival needs?
Nutrients – chemical substances used for energy and cell building

Oxygen – needed for metabolic reactions

Water – provides the necessary environment for chemical reactions

Maintaining normal body temperature – necessary for chemical reactions to occur at life-sustaining rates

Atmospheric pressure – required for proper breathing and gas exchange in the lungs
The three interdependent components of control mechanisms are:
Receptor – monitors the environments and responds to changes (stimuli)

Control center – determines the set point at which the variable is maintained

Effector – provides the means to respond to the stimulus
In negative feedback systems, the output shuts off the original stimulus, give an example.
Example: Regulation of blood glucose levels
In positive feedback systems, the output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus, example.
Example: Regulation of blood clotting
Overwhelming of ________ feedback mechanisms allowing ________ positive feedback mechanisms to take over

Medial, lateral, and intermediate – toward the ___________________________
midline, away from the midline, and between a more medial and lateral structure
Proximal and distal –

Superficial and deep –
closer to and farther from the origin of the body

toward and away from the body surface
Ions are charged atoms resulting from the gain or loss of ________
Electrons shared equally between atoms produce nonpolar molecules, give an example.
Building blocks of protein...
containing an amino group and a carboxyl group
Primary structure –
Secondary structure –
Tertiary structure –
Quaternary structure –
1.chain of amino acids in single-file line amino acids interact with one another and begin to fold
3.three dimensional folding of amino acids to make a large protein
4.multiple proteins functioning together as a single unit
what is a Source of immediately usable energy for the cell
Bilayer membrane consists of
phospholipids, cholesterol, and glycolipids
What type of transport Uses ATP to move solutes across a membrane
Active transport
Secondary active transport –
use of an exchange pump (such as the Na+-K+ pump) indirectly to drive the transport of other solutes
In skeletal and cardiac muscle – storage and release of calcium is regulated by what?
smooth er
What functions in modification, concentration, and packaging of proteins
Golgi apparatus
Lysosomes not only detoxify a cell they....
Breakdown bone to release Ca2+
Body temperature regulation is accomplished by
Dilation (cooling) and constriction (warming) of dermal vessels
Hydroxyapatites, or mineral salts are responsible for what 3 characteristics?
Sixty-five percent of bone by mass

Mainly calcium phosphates

Responsible for bone hardness and its resistance to compression
Articulation is
– site where two or more bones meet
Articulating bones are united by what?