Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/77

Click to flip

77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cell
the basic structural unit of all plant and animals
cell membrane
also plasma membrane; the outer cover of a cell
semipermeable
able to allow some, but not all, substances to pass through. Cell membranes are semipermeable
cytoplasm
thick fluid that fills a cell
also known as the protoplasm
cytosol
clear liquid portion of the cytoplasm in a cell
cytoskeleton
structure of protein filaments that supports the internal structure of a cell
erythocyte
red blood cell
leukocyte
white blood cell
thrombocyte
blood cell responsible for clotting; also called a platelet
lymphocyte
a type of leukocyte, or white blood cell, that attacks foreign substances as part of the body's immune response
phagocyte
a cell that has the ability to ingest other cells and substances such as bacteria and cell debris
phagocytosis
ingestion and digestion of bacteria and other substances by phagocytes
monocyte
white blood cell with a single nucleus; the largest normal blood cell
granulocyte
white cell with multiple nuclei that has the appearrance of a bag of granules
cytokine
protein produced by a white blood cell that instructs neighboring cells to respond in a genetically preprogrammed fashion
cytotoxin
substance that is poisonous to cells
cytotoxic
poisonous (toxic) to cells
organelles
structures that perform specific functions within a cell
nucleus
the organelle within a cell that contains the DNA, or genetic material; in the cells of higher organisms, the nucleus is surrounded by a membrane.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
a high-energy compound present in all cells, especially muscle cells; when split by enzyme action it yields energy. Energy is stored in ATP
Endoplasmic reticulum
the endoplasmic reticulum is a network of small channels that has both rough and smooth portions.
Rough ER
functions in the synthesis (building) of proteins
Smooth ER
functions in the synthesis of lipids, some of which are used in the formation of cell membranes, and carbohydrates.
Golgi apparatus
is located near the nucleus of most cells. It performs a cariety of functions including synthesis and packaging of secretions such as mucus and enzymes
Mitochondria
are the energy factories, sometimes called the "powerhouses" of the cells. they convert essential nutrients into energy sources, often in the form of ATP
Lysosomes
contain digestive enzymes. their functions include protection against disease and production of nutrients, breaking down bacteria and organic debris that has been taken into the cells and releasing usuable substances such as sugars and amino acids.
Peroxisomes
similar to lysosomes. Especially abundant in the liver, they absorb and neutralize toxins such as alcohol.
Chromatin
tangles of chromosome filaments containing DNA
Ribosomes
granular structures that manufacture proteins - some free float, other are attached to the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum, which creates the "rough" ER
Vesicles
play a role in transferring and storing secretions from the rough ER and the Golgi complex
tissue
a group of cells that perform a similar function
epithelial tissue
the protective tissue that lines internal and external body tissues. Examples: skin, mucous membranes, the linign of the intestinal tract
muscle tissue
tisue that is capable of contraction when stimulated. there are 3 types of muscle tissue
Cardiac muscle tissue
is tissue found only within the heart. it has the capability of spontaneous contraction without external stimulation
Smooth muscle tissue
is the muscle found within the intestines and encircling blood vessels. smooth muscle is generally under the control of the involuntary, or autonomic, component of the nervous system
Skeletal muscle tissue
is the most abundant muscle type. it allows movement and is mostly under voluntary control
connective tissue
the most abundant body tissue; it provides support, connection, and insulation. Examples: bone, cartilage, fat, blood
nerve tissue
tissue that transmits electrical impulses throughout the body
organ
a group of tissues functioning together. Examples: heart, liver, brain, ovary, eye
organ system
a group of organs that work together. Examples: the cardiovascular system, formed of the heart, blood vessels, and blood; the gastrointestinal system, comprisinf the mouth, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, gall bladder, rectum, and anus.
organism
the sum of all the cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems of a living being.
homestasis
the natural tendency of the body to maintain a steady and normal internal environment
anatomy
the structure of an organism; body structure
physiology
the functions of an organism; the physical and chemical processes of a living thing
metabolism
the total changes that take place during physiological processes
negative feedback loop
body mechanisms that work to reverse, or compensate for, a pathophysiological process, (or reverse any physiological process, whether pathological or nonpathological)
total body water (TBW)
the total amount of water in the body at a given time
intracellular fluid (ICF)
the fluid inside the body cells
extracellular fluid (ECF)
the fluid outside the body cells. Extracellular is comprised of intravascular fluid and interstitial fluid
intravascular fluid
the fluid within the circulatory system; blood plasma
interstitial fluid
the fluid in body tissues that is outside the cells and outside the vascular system
solvent
a substance that dissolves other substances, forming a solution
dehydration
excessive loss of body fluid
turgor
normal tension in the cell; the resistance of the skin to deformation. (In a normally hydrated person, the skin when pinched, will quickly return to its normal formation. In a dehydrated person, the return to normal formation will be slower.)
overhydration
the presence of retention of an abnormally high amount of body fluid
electrolyte
a substance that, in water, separates into electricaly charged particles
dissociates
separate; break down. for example: sodium bicarbonate, when placed in water, dissociates into a sodium cation and a bicarbonate anion
ion
a charged particle; an atom or group of atoms whose electrical charge has changed from neutral to positve or negative by losing or gaining one or more electrons. (In an atom's normal, non-ionized state, its positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons balance each other so that the atom's charge is neutral.)
cation
an ion with a positive charge - so called because it will be attracted to a cathode, or negative pole
anion
an ion with a negative charge - so called because it will be attracted to an anode or positive pole.
buffer
a substance that tends to preserve or restore a normal acid-base balanceby increasing or decreasing the concentration of hydrogen ions.
isotonic
equal in concentration of solute molecules; solution s may be isotonic to each other
hypertonic
having a greater concentration of solute molecules; one solution may be hypertonic to another
hypotonic
having a lesser concentration of solute molecules; one solution may be hypotonic to another
osmotic gradient
the difference in concentration between solutions on opposite sides of a semipermeable membrane
diffusion
the movement of molecules through a membrane from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration
osmosis
the movement of water from an area of higher WATER concentration to an area of lesser WATER concentration. Because water is a solvent, it moves from an area of lower SOLUTE concentration to an area of higher SOLUTE concentration
active transport
movement of a substance through a cell membrane against the osmotic gradient; that is, from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration, opposite to the normal direction of diffusion
facilitated diffusion
diffusion of a substance such as glucose through a cell membrane that requires the assistance of a "helper" or carrier protein
osmotic pressure
the pressure exerted by the concentration of solutes on one side of a membrane that, if hypertonic, tends to "pull" water (cause osmosis) from the other side of the membrane
oncotic force
a form of osmotic pressure exerted by the large protein particles, or colliods, present in blood plasma. in the capillaries, the plasma colloids tend to pull water from the interstitial space across the capillary membrane into the capillary. oncotic force is also call colloid osmotic pressure
hydrostatic pressure
blood pressure or force against vessel walls created by the heart beat. Hydrostatic pressure tends to force water out of the capillaries into the interstitial space
filtration
movment of water out of the plasma across the capillary membrane into the interstitial space
net filtration
the total loss of water from blood plasma across the capillary membrane into the interstitial space. Normally, hydrostatic pressure forcing water out of the capillary is balanced by oncotic force pulling water into the capillary for a net filtration of zero
pH
abbreviation for potential of hydrogen. a measure of relative acidity or alkalinity.
since the pH scale is inverse to the concentration of acidic hydrogen ions, the lower the pH the greater the acidity and the higher the pH the greater the alkalinity. A normal pH range is 7.35 to 7.45
acidosis
a high concentration of hydrogens ions; a pH below 7.35
alkalosis
a low concentration of hydrogen ions; a pH above 7.45