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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Structure of our bodies
study of body functions
Major Characteristics of life
maintenance of boundaries, movement, responsiveness/irritability, metabolism, digestion, excretion, growth, reproduction
Atomic number
number of protons
Mass Number
protons plus neutrons
Saturated fatty acids
have single carbon bonds, with each end attached to maximum number of H atoms
Unsaturated fatty acids
have double carbon bonds and are not completely saturated with H atoms
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
Four major types of tissues
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nervous
Epithelial Tissue
covers and lines cavities and surfaces, always has one free surface, contains no blood vessels, has basement membrane
Basement Membrane
supports, nourishes, anchors, filters
composed of basal lamina- acts as selective filter between blood and ET
Reticular lamina- made up of fine network of collagen fibers
Classifications of Epithelial tissue
Shape: squamous, cuboidal, columnar
Number of cell layers: simple, stratified, pseudostratified
Endocrine glands
secrete hormones directly into the interstitial fluid surrounding the secreting cell
Exocrine glands
secrete their products into ducts
Merocrine glands
secrete by exocytosis
cell isn't damaged
most common type of gland cells in body
Apocrine glands
accumulate secretory product in apcial region of cell
pinch off part of apical region in secretory process
Holocrine glands
entire cell becomes laden with secretory products, then bursts
cell is destroyed
Connective Tissue
most abundanct tissue in body
various functions: binding, support, connection, insulation, transportation
Two basic components of Connective Tissue
Extracellular matrix (nonliving component)- ground substance, 3 types of fibers
Cells (living component)
Four Basic Types of Connective Tissue
Loose CT (areolar, reticular, adipose)
Dense CT (regular, irregular, elastic)
Cartilage (hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage)
Muscle Tissue
consists of elongated cells specialized to contract and cause movement
contain contracile proteins actin and myosin
Skeletal Muscles
attaches and moves the bony skeleton
Voluntary control
Cardiac Muscles
occurs only in heart
Smooth (visceral) muscles
found in walls of internal organs, blood vessels, respiratory passages
Nervous tissue
located only in nervous system
specialized to receive stimuli, transmit info, control actions of muscles and glands
branching cells which receive and transmit electrical impulses
Neuroglial cells
non-conducting cells
smaller, more numerous thatn neurons
support, nourish, protect neurons
Synovial membranes
composed on connective tissue
line the joint cavities
Serous membranes
moist membranes that line body cavities that do not open to outside
Mucous membranes
line cavities which are open to outside of body
Cutaneous membranes
the skin
Functions of integumentary system
protection, thermoregulation, excretion, cutaneous sensation, vitamin D synthesis, blood reservoir
Skin Layers
composed of dense, irregular connective tissue containing mostly collagen fibers
contains numerous blood vessels
contains many nerve fibers, sensory receptors
contains major portions of hair follicles, sebaceous glands, sweat glands
consists of two layers: reticular, papillary
superficial layer
composed of keratinized epithelium
contains several different types of cells(keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells, Merkel cells)
Epidermal Layers (deepest to superficial)
Stratum Basale
Stratum Spinosum
Stratum Granulosum
Stratum Lucidum
Stratum Corneum
Three pigments that contribute to skin color
Accessory Structures of skin
Hair and hair follicles
Glands- sebaceous, sudoriferous (sweat)
Two types of Sweat glands
Eccrine glands- most numerous, secrete sweat by exocytosis, regulated by sympathetic nervous system
Apocrine glands- found primarily in armpit and groin, ducts terminate in hair follicles, sweat also contains fatty acids and proteins
Ceruminous glands
located in lining of the external ear
produce cerumen (wax)
Mammary glands
sweat glands that are modified to secrete milk
Axial skeleton
spine, skull, ribs, sternum
80 bones
Appendicular skeleton
arms, legs, pelvis
126 bones
Skeletal system functions
support, protection, movement, storage, blood cell formation
Classification of bones
long bones
short bones
flat bones
irregular bones
Compact bones
functions in support, resists bending, twisting and compression
structural unit is osteon/Haversian system
Spongy bone
function as shock absorbers, more space, less material
Structure of long bone
Epiphyseal line
Articular cartilage
double-layered membrane that covers all but the articulating surface of the long bone
Sharpey's fibers
collegen fibers that extend through both sides of the periosteum
responsible for distributing tension forces
Structure of short, flat and irregular bones
interior is spongy bone covered on both sides by a thin layer of compact bone
Process of Intramembranous Ossification
embryonic formation of bony skeleton
1. primitive connective tissue cells in fibrous membrane differentiate into osteoblasts
2. trabeculae forms and osteoblasts are trapped in lacunae
3.perosteum develops and plates of compact bone are produced on external surfaces
Process of Endochondral Ossification
embryonic formation of bony skeleton
1. Development of the cartilage model
2. Osteoblasts in perichondrium produce periosteal bone collar
3. Development of the primary ossification center
4. Development of secondary ossification centers
5. Growth in length
Epiphyseal plate
a cartilaginous region between the epiphysis and diaphysis