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41 Cards in this Set

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Define osmosis
Movement of water molecules across a semipermeable membrane from low solute concentration to high solute concentration.
What are the purines?
Adenine and Guanine
What are the pyramidines?
Thymine and cytosine
Define Diffusion
Matter moving from high concentration to low until equilibrium is reached
What determines osmotic pressure?
the solute concentration.
What is the cell membrane also called in a cell?
phospholipid bilayer
Differentiate between passive and active transporters
passive trasporters travel from a low solute concentration to high solute concentration while active transporters go against the natural flow.
Which carbohydrate was released in bone from cellular respiration?
glycogen
What waste is produced from aerobic respiration?
CO2 and H2O
What waste is produced from anaerobic respiration?
Lactic acid
Which makes more ATP: Anaerobic or Aerobic respiration?
Aerobic Respiration
Which molecules are involved in ionic bonds?
Inorganic molecules
Which molecules are involved in Covalent bonds?
Organic molecules
What is characteristic about hydrogen bonds?
they are weak
Define anabolism
Storing energy and synthesizing
Define Catabolism
Breaking down by releasing energy
Define Enzyme
3-D proteins that are organic catalysts
What is lactose made up of?
glucose and galactose
What 2 monosacharrides make up sucrose?
glucose and fructose
What are the building blocks of proteins?
amino acids
What are the building blocks of carbohydrates?
monosacharrides
What are the building blocks of lipids?
fatty acids and glycerol
What are the building blocks of nucleic acids?
nucleotide
What make up nucleotides?
Phosphate group, sugar, nitrogenous base
Define Acids
Donates H ions
Define Bases
Accepts H ions
Define Salt
Doesn't accept or donate H ions
If the pH is higher then what does that say about the number of hydrogen ions?
There are less Hydrogen ions
Define Buffer
Substance that prevents rapid change in pH by donating or accepting hydrogen ions
What is the main function of carbohydrates in the body?
To produce ATP
What elements are in proteins?
N,H,C,O
Why is an amino acid able to be used as a buffer?
Because the carboxyl group can donate a hydrogen ion and NH2 can accept a hydrogen ion
Where are peptide bonds formed?
at ribosomes with amino acids
Which functional groups are present in amino acids?
amines and carboxyl groups
Which substances can be used to denature proteins?
heat, acid, base, gold, mercury, alcohol, lead.
Define denature
To change the 3-D shape of a protein and therefore change the function.
Describe the steps of protein synthesis
DNA->mRNA->tRNA->protein
What is the lipid's function at the cellular level?
Used as structural material
WHat make up lipids?
Fatty acids and glycerol
Where is the DNA located in the cell?
Nucleus
Is a lipid organic?
YES