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100 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
anatomy
the scientific study of the structure or morpholgy of organisms and their parts
gross anatomy
(macroscopic anatomy)
deals with large structures that can be seen through normal dissection
microscoopic anatomy
deals with smaller structures and fine detail that can be seen only with the aide of a microscope
physiology
scientific study of the functions of processes of living things
cytology
study of cellular structure
histology
study of tissues
chemical level
deals with interactions of atoms and their combinations into molecules
cells
the basic living units of all organisms
tissues
cells with similar structure and function are grouped together
organs
two or more tissue types that together form a more complex structure and work together to form one or more functions
body system
consists of several organs that work together to accomplish a set of functions
total organism
made up of several systems that work together to maintain life
integumentary system
consists of the skin and the various accessory organs associated with it. they include hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous (oil)glands. the componets of this system protect underlying tissues from harm, protect against water loss, contain sense receptors, help in temperature regulation, and synthesize chemicals to be used in other parts of the body.
skeletal system
forms the framework of the body and protects underlying organs such as the brain, lungs, and heart. consists of the bones and joints along with ligaments and cartilage that bind the bones together, act with muscles to produce movement. tissues within bones produce blood cells and store inorganic salts.
muscular system
muscles. as they contract, create forces that produce movement and maintain posture. store energy in the form of glycogen and are the primary source of heat within the body.
nervous system
consists of brain, spinal chord, and associated nerves. these organs work together to coordinate body activites. some nerve endings can detect changes in the environment (stimuli)
endocrine system
includes all the glands that secrete horomones. horomones travel through the blood and regulate body activities. this system works with the nervous system. works slowly but with sustained effect
cardiovascular system
consistsof the blood, heart, and blood vessels. the blood transports nutrients, horomones, and oxygen to tissue cells and removes waste products such as carbon dioxide
lymphatic system
consists of a series of vessels that transport fluid (lymph) from the tissues back into the blood. includes lymph nodes and lymphoid organs such as the tonsils, spleen, and thymus that filter the lympg to remove foreign particles to pretect against disease. sometimes considered part of the cardio system
digestive system
organs in this system include the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine (colon), which make up the digestive tract. accessory organs include teeth, tounge, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. ingests food, processes it into things that can be used in the body and then removes waste.
urinary system
kidneys, urinary bladder, and urethra make up this system. removes waste materials, especially nitrogenous wastes, from the blood and helps to regulate the fluid and chemical content of the body.
reproductive system
concerned with the creation of new humans. ovaries in females and testes in males.
oganization
at all levels of the orgaizational scheme, there is a division of labor. each component has its own job to perform in cooperation with others.
metabolism
includes all the chemical reactions that occur in the body.
cabolism
(part of metabolism)
complex substances are borken down into simpler building blocks and energy is released
anabolism
(part of metabolism)
a building-up process in which complex substances and synthesized from simpler ones
responsiveness
aka irritability is concerned with detecting changes in the internal or external environment and reacting to those changes
movement
many different types of movement (blood, molecules, diaphragm) the ability of muscle fibers to shorten and thus create movement is called contractility
reproduction
cellular (formation of new cells and repair of old) and regular--babies. both are very impt.
growth
refers to an increase in size either because number of cells grows or size of cells gorw...or both.
differentiation
a developmental process by with unspecialized cells change into specialized cells
respiration
all the processes involved in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the cells and the external environment.
digestion
breaking down complex foods into simple molecules that can be used and stored by/in the body
excretion
the process that removes the waste from digestion and metabolism
homeostasis
refers to the constant inernal environment that must be maintained for the cells of the body
stressor
and condition or stimulus that disrupts the homeostatic balance in the body
negative feedback
does not prevent varation but returns the system back to a normal range or homeostasis
positive feedback
stimulate or amplify changes. only 2 examples: giving birth and blood clott formation
superior
one part is above another part, or closer to the head
inferior
one part is below another part, or closer to the feet
anterior
(or ventral)
means toward the front surface
posterior
(or dorsal)
means toward the back surface
medial
means toward, or nearer, the midline of the body
lateral
means toward, or nearer, the side, away from the midline
proximal
means that a part is closer to a point of attachment, or closer to the trunk of the body, than another part
distal
means that a part is farther away from a point of attachment than is another part
superficial
means that a part is located on or near the surface
deep
means that a part is away from the surface
visceral
pertains to internal organs or the covering of the organs
parietal
refers to the wall of a body cavity
sagittal plane
refers to a lengthwise cut that divides the body into right and left portions
midsagittal plane
passes through the midline of the body and cuts the body into right and left halves
transverse plane
(horizontal plane)
perpendicular to the sagittal plane and cuts across the body horizontally to divide it inot superior and inferior portions
frontal plane
(coronal plane)
divides the body into anterior and posterior portions. perpendicular to both the sagittal plane and the transverse plane
dorsal cavity
one of two main body cavities. divided into cranial cavity and spinal cavity
cranial cavity
holds the brain
spinal cavity
holds the spinal chord
ventral cavity
much larger than the dorsal cavity and subdivided into the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity
thoracic cavity
superior to the abdominopelvic cavity and contains the heart, lungs, esphagus, and trachea. separated from a. cavity by diaphragm.
abdominopelvic cavity
separated into abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity
abdominal cavity
superior to the pelvic cavity. contains stomach, liver, gallbladder, spleen, and most of the intestines
pelvic cavity
inferior to the abdominal cavity and contains the rectum, the urinary bladder, and the internal reproductive organs.
axial region
consists of the head, neck, and trunk and the appendicular portion
appendicular portion
consists of limbs
trunk
aka torso. includes the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis.
antecubital
space in front of elbow
axillary
armpit area
brachial
arm; proximal portion of upper limb
buccal
region of cheek
carpal
wrist
celiac
abdomen
cephalic
head
cervical
neck region
costal
ribs
cranial
skull
cutaneous
skin
femoral
thigh; part of lower extremity between hip and knee
frontal
forehead
gluteal
buttock region
inguinal
groin; depressed region between abdomen and thigh
leg
portion of lower extremity between knee and foot; also called crural region
lumbar
region of lower back and side between lowest rib and pelvis
otic
ears
palmar
palm of hand
pectoral
chest region
pedal
foot
pelvic
inferior region of abdominopelvic cavity
perineal
region between anus and pubis symphysis; includes region of external reproductive organs
plantar
sole of foot
popliteal
area behind knee
sacral
posterior region between hip bones
sternal
anterior midline of the thorax
tarsal
ankle and instep of foot
thoracic
(pectoral)
chest; part of trunk inferior to neck and superior to diaphragm
umbilical
navel; middle region of abdomen
vertebral
pertaining to spinal column; backbone
opthalmic
eye
antebrachial
(cubital)
forearm; area between elbow and wrist
mammary
boobs; mammory glands
occipital
back of the head