Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/38

Click to flip

38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
midgut derivatives
distal duodenum, jejunum, ilium, cecum, appendix, ascending colon, proximal two-thirds of transverse colon
midgut blood supply / venous drainage / lymphatics
superior mesenteric artery, superior mesenteric vein, superior mesenteric lymph nodes
hindgut derivatives
distal one-third of transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum
hindgut blood supply / venous drainage / lymphatics
inferior mesenteric artery, vein, lymph nodes
small intestine (parts, divisions)
consists of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum; proximal half of duodenum: 1st/2nd parts are derived from foregut; distal half: 3rd/4th parts derived from midgut
distal duodenum
located in right upper quadrant; secondarily retroperitonial; horizontal (3rd) part, ascending (4th) part
horizontal (3rd) part of duodenum
located in right upper quadrant, secondarily retroperitoneal, superior messenteric vesels emerge superior to this part
ascending (4th) part of duodenum
2ndarily retroperitoneal, forms duodenojejunal flexure, marking duodenojejunal junction
duodenojejunal flexure
acute angle marking the duodenojejunal junction; marks the transition from the secondarily retroperitoneal duodenum to the intraperitoneal jejunum; supported by the suspensory muscle of the duodenum (ligament of Treitz)
jejunum
intraperitoneal (robust mesentery); central position in abdomen; prominent plicae circulares
ileum
intraperitoneal (robust mesentery); central position in abdomen; plicae circulares are sparse proximally and entirely absent distally; lymphatic nodules (Peyer’s patches); ends at ileocecal junction
ileal (Meckel's) diverticulum
1-2% occurrence; congenital; remnant of yolk stalk (embryonic connection between the yolk sac and developing gut); blind pouch on the antimesenteric side of ileum; typically ~50 mm from ileocecal junction; inflammation can produce pain similar to appendicitis
suspensory muscle of duodenum
(ligament of Treitz) supports duodenojujenul flexure, tethering it to diaphragm
large intestine (description)
consists of cecum, appendix, colon (ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid), and rectum; includes both midgut and hindgut derivatives; the midgut/hindgut transition lies at the junction of the proximal two-thirds and distal one-third of the transverse colon
features of large intestine
teniae coli: three longitudinal bands of smooth muscle (not present on rectum); haustra: pouches between the teniae coli; omental (epiploic) appendices: fat
cecum
intraperitoneal; located in right lower quadrant; round pouch; ileocecal valve between ileum and cecum closes when cecum is distended
appendix
intraperitoneal (mesoappendix); located in right lower quadrant; typically retrocecal (but position can vary, e.g., may extend inferiorly into pelvis); worm-like appendage of the cecum; teniae coli converge at appendix; root of appendix lies at “McBurney’s point”
McBurney's point
1/3 of the way from the ASIS along a line from the ASIS to the umbilicus; location of appendectomy incision
ascending colon
secondarily retroperitoneal (short mesentery in ~25% of people); located in right lower/upper quadrants; extends superiorly along right side of abdominal cavity between the cecum and the right colic (hepatic) flexure; right paracolic gutter is just lateral to the ascending colon
transverse colon
intraperitoneal (transverse mesocolon; located in right upper and left upper quadrants; extends horizontally between the right colic flexure and left colic (splenic) flexure; left colic flexure typically sits at a higher level than the right colic flexure
descending colon
secondarily retroperitoneal (short mesentery in ~33% of people); located in the left upper and left lower quadrants; extends inferiorly along left side of abdominal cavity between the left colic flexure and the sigmoid colon; left paracolic gutter is just lateral to descending colon
sigmoid colon
intraperitoneal (sigmoid mesocolon); located in the left lower quadrant; extends from descending colon to rectum; S-shaped
rectum
primarily retroperitoneal; lacks teniae coli
paracolic gutters
conduits for the spread of fluid within the peritoneal cavity; right: just lateral to ascending colon, left: lateral to descending colon
superior mesenteric artery
midgut; arises from the abdominal aorta at L1 vertebral level, posterior to the pancreas; crosses the 3rd part of the duodenum anteriorly; branches into anterior & posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries; jejunal and ileal arteries; colic arteries
Anterior & posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries
branch from superior mesenteric artery; anastomose with anterior & posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal aa. from celiac trunk
jejunal and ileal arteries
branch from SMA; form anastomosing arcades that terminate in straight arteries (vasa recta); jejunum characterized by few arcades and long straight arteries; ileum characterized by multiple arcades and short straight arteries
colic arteries
contribute to the marginal artery (an anastomosing loop that parallels the colon); branches into ileocolic artery (br. into appendicular artery in mesoappendix), right colic artery, middle colic artery
inferior mesenteric artery
hindgut; arises from the abdominal aorta at L3 vertebral level; branches into left colic artery (contributes to marginal artery), sigmoid arteries (contributes to marginal artery); superior rectal artery (terminal branch of IMA)
portal system in midgut/hindgut; portal-caval anastomoses
midgut: SMV, hindgut: IMV; portal tributaries draining the colon communicate with the paired veins of the IVC, providing an alternative route in cases of portal hypertension
superior mesenteric vein
midgut; tributaries generally parallel the branches of the SMA; joins with splenic vein to form the portal vein
inferior mesenteric vein
hindgut; tributaries generally parallel the branches of the IMA; typically empties into splenic vein posterior to body of pancreas
lymphatics of hindgut / midgut
midgut derivatives: lymph drain to superior mesenteric lymph nodes then into the chyle cistern; hindgut derivatives: lymph drain to inferior mesenteric lymph nodes then into superior mesenteric or aortic lymph nodes
midgut parasympathetic innervation
Preganglionic CB: brain (CN X); Preganglionic fibers: vagus nn; Postganglionic CB and fibers: walls of organs
hindgut parasympathetic innervation
Preganglionic CB: S2-4 levels of the spinal cord; Preganglionic fibers: pelvic splanchnic nerves; Postganglionic CB and fibers: walls of organs
midgut sympathetic innervation
preganglionic CB: lateral horn of the thoracic spinal cord; Preganglionic fibers: ventral root > spinal nerve > white ramus communicans > sympathetic trunk > thoracic splanchnic nerves; postganglionic CB: celiac or superior mesenteric ganglia; postganglionic fibers: follow arterial branches to target organ
hindgut sympathetic innervation
preganglionic CB: lateral horn of the lumbar spinal cord; Preganglionic fibers: ventral root > spinal nerve > white ramus communicans > sympathetic trunk > lumbar splanchnic nerves; postganglionic CB: inferior mesenteric ganglion; postganglionic fibers: follow arterial branches to target organ
appendicitis pain
presents as diffuse periumbilical pain (T10 dermatome); as parietal peritoneum becomes involved, somatic innervation localizes the pain to the right lower quadrant