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23 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is atmospheric pressure?
It drives respiration and it is the weight of air above us
What does boyle's law state?
It states that at a constant temperature, the pressure of a given quantity of gas is inversely proportional to it's volume
How does atmospheric pressure vary?
With location and temperature
What is intrapleural pressure?
A slight vacuum. drops about -6 mm Hg when inhaling
What is Charles's law?
the volume of a given quantity of gas is directly proportional to it's absolute temperature. Contributes to the thermal expansion of lungs.
What is pneumothorax?
The presence of air in the pleural cavity
What is atelectasis?
Collapse of a lung
What are the three factors that contribute to resistance to airflow?
1.) diameter of the bronchioles- Epinephrine and sympathetic nerves (norepinephrin) stimulate bronchodilation and increase airflow while histamine, parasympathetic nerves (acytelcholine), cold air, and chemical irritants are factors for bronchoconstriction
2.)Pulmonary compliance- the ease with which the lungs expand.
3.) Surface tension of alveoli and distal bronchioles-thin film of water over alveoli creating surface tension. Surfactant disrupts the hydrogen bonds of water and reduces surface tension
What is surfactant? What is it made of?
it is an agent that disrupts the hydrogen bonds of water and reduces surface tension. It is composed of amphiphilic proteins and phospholipids
What is infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS)?
It is the lack of surfactant that makes it difficult for infants to breath
Why is the conducting division of the respiratory system called the anatomical dead space?
because the air cannot exchange gases with the blood.
What is the physiological dead space?
It is the sum total of anatomical dead space and any alveolar dead space.
What is alveolar ventilation rate?
It is the amount of inhaled air, excluding dead space multiplied by the respiratory rate. ex. 350 mL/breath x 12 breaths per minute
What is residual volume?
The leftover air after expiration in the alveoli.
what is the tool used to measure variables such as the rate and depth of breathing, speed of expiration, and rate of oxygen consumption?
spirometer
what are the four different types of respiratory volumes in measurement of lung function
Tidal volume- amount of air expelled in one cycle of respiration
Expiratory reserve volume- amount of air that could potentially be expelled after the normal 500 mL
Inspiratory reserve volume- amount of air that could potentially be inhaled after the normal 500 mL inhalation.
Risidual volume- the amount of air still in lungs after maximum expiration; the amount that can never be exhaled.
What are the four types of respiratory capacities?
Vital capacity- The amount of air that can be inhaled and then exhaled with maximum effort. ERV+ TV + IRV
Inspiratory Capacity- The maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal tidal expiration. TV+ IRV
Functional Residual capacity- the amount of air in lungs after a normal tidal expiration.
Total lung capacity-maximum amount of air the lungs can contain. RV+ VC
What is spirometry?
The measurement of pulmonary function.
What are restrictive disorders
disorders that reduce pulmonary compliance
What are obstructive disorders?
Those that interfere with airflow by narrowing or blocking the airway
Forced expiratory volume
percentage of the vital capacity that can be exhaled in a given time interval.
What is peak flow?
it is the maximum speed of expiration.
What is the minute respiratory volume
The amount of air that is inhaled in 1 minute.