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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define anisocytosis.
Varying cell sizes
Define poikilocytosis
Varying cell shapes
From which cells do B cells arise?
Stem cells in bone marrow
From which cells do plasma cells differentiate?
B cells
How can a Nissl stain be used to differentiate microglia from oligodendroglia?
Microglia are not discernable in a Nissl stain while oligodendroglia appear as small dark nuclei with dark chromatin
In what type of CNS tissue (white or grey) are oligodendroglia predominant?
White matter
Into what cell type does a monocyte differentiate in tissues?
Macrophage
Name 2 substances produced by an eosinophil.
histiminase and arylsulfatase
Name the three types of leukocytic granulocytes.
Basophils

Eosinophils

Neutrophils
Name the two types of mononuclear leukocytes
Lymphocytes

Monocytes
What are 2 functions of T cell lymphocytes?
Cellular immunity

Regulation of B cells and macrophages
What are 2 morphological features of microglia?
- Small irregular nuclei

- Relatively little cytoplasm
What are 3 examples of peripheral lymphoid tissue?
- follicles of lymph nodes
- white pulp of spleen
- unencapsulated lymphoid tissue
What are 3 functions of a macrophage?
- pagocytosis of bacteria, cell debris, and senescent red cells
- scavenges damaged cells and tissues
- can function as an antigen presenting cell
What are 3 morphological characteristics of monocytes?
- Large

- Kidney shaped nucleus

- Extensive "frosted glass" cytoplasm
What are 4 characteristics of the plasma cell morphology?
- Off center nucleus

- Clock face chromatin distribution

- Abundant RER

- Well developed Golgi apparatus
What are 4 morphologic characteristics of lymphocytes?
- Round

- Small

- Densely staining nucleus

- Small amount of pale cytoplasm
What are 4 substances contained within the lysosomes of neutrophils?
- Hydrolytic enzymes

- Myeloperoxidase

- Lysozyme

- Lactoferrin
What are 4 types of cells into which T cells differentiate?
- Cytotoxic cells - CD8, MHCI

- Helper T cells - CD$, MHCII

- Suppressor T cells

- Delayed hypersensitivity T cells
What are the 5 important causes for eosinophilia in humans?
- Neoplastic process

- Asthma

- Allergy

- Collagen vascular disease

- Parasites

Mnemonic NAACP
What are the blood cell diffenentiation names of the ACTIVE T CELL line beginning with the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell? (4)
- Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell - Lymphoblast - T cell - Active T cell
What are the blood cell differentiation names of the ERYTHROCYTE cell line beginning with pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell? (4)
- Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell - Proerythroblast - Reticulocyte - Erythrocyte
What are the blood cell differentiation names of the MONOCYTE cell lines beginning with the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell? (3)
- Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell - Mono blast - Monocyte
What are the blood cell differentiation names of the NEUTROPHIL, EOSINOPHIL, and BASOPHIL cell lines beginning with the myeloblast stage? (6)
- Myeloblast - Promyelocyte - Myelocyte - Metamyelocyte - Stab cell - Neutrophil, eosinophil or basophil
What are the blood cell differentiation names of the PLASMA CELL line beginning with the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell? (4)
- Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell - Lymphoblast - B cell - Plasma cell
What are the blood cell differentiation names of the PLATELET CELL line beginning with the hematopoietic stem cell? (4)
- Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell - Megakaryoblast - Megakaryocyte - Platelets
What are the components of the air-blood barrier?
Type I pneumocyte --> Tight junction --> Endothelial cell
What are the steps of maturation of a B cell? (2 points)
Maturation in bone marrow

Migration to peripheral lymphoid tissue
What are the substances contained within the densly basophilic granules of the basophil? (4)
- Heparine

- Histamine

- Vasoactive amines

- Slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis
What are two basic morphological characteristics of neutrophils?
- Multilobed nucleus

- Specific azurophilic granules (lysosomes)
What are two important functions of neutrophil
Acute inflammatory reaction

Phagocytosis
What are two names for an increased number of red cells?
Erythrocytosis


Polycythemia
What cell type closely resembles a mast cell?
Basophil
What cranial nerves are commonly involved in an acoustic neuroma?
CN VII, VIII (association with internal acoustic meatus)
What disease is characterized by destruction of oligodendroglia?
Multiple sclerosis
What does CD stand for?
cluster of differentiation
What drug prevents mast cell degranulation?
Cromolyn sodium
What immunoglobulin can bind to the membrane of a mast cell?
IgE
What is a reticulocyte?
Immature erythrocyte
What is an important example of a Schwannoma?
Acoustic neuroma
What is another name for pulmonary sufractant?
DPPC (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine)
What is percentage of leukocytes in the blood exist as basophils?
less than 1%
What is the 'gap' between the myelination segment of 2 Schwann cells called?
Node of Ranvier
What is the advantage of the large surface area:volume ratio in erythrocytes?
easy gas exchange (Oxygen and Carbon dioxide)
What is the basic morphologic structure of an erythrocyte?
Anucleate, biconcave
What is the basic morphology of an eosinophil? (2 things)
- bilobate nucleus

- large eosinophilic granules
What is the embryologic origin of microglia?
Mesoderm
What is the function of Interferon gamma with relation to macrophages?
Macrophage activation
What is the function of microglia?
Phagocytosis in CNS
What is the function of oligodendroglia?
Myelination in CNS