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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is anatomy?
the branch of sicence that studies body parts
what is physiology?
the branch of science that studies the function on body parts
what is homeostasis?
a constant internal environment
negative feedback loop
mechanism used to maintain the internal environment
2 major body cavities
dorsal and ventral
cavity that surrounds the lungs

cavity that surrounds the heart
pulral cavity

pericardial cavity
most superior ventral body cavity
thorasic cavity
separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities
1. superior
2. inferior
3. medial
4. lateral
1. top
2. below
3. middle
4. side
divides the body into left and right halves
sagital plane
divides the body into anterior and posterior sections
coronal plane
divides the body into superior and inferior sections
transverse plane
what are the 2 dorsal cavities?
crainal cavity- brain
vertebral cavity- spinal cord
what are the 2 ventral cavities?
thoracic cavity- plural
abdominopelvic- abdomin (organs)
pelvic (repro)
what are the 5 levels of organization?
1. molecular
2. cellular
3. tissue
4. organ
5. organ system
what are the 4 types of tissues?
1. muscle
2. nerve
3. connective
4. epithelial
what are the 10 organ systems
cardovascular, nervous, digestive, skeletal, muscular, urinary, reproducitve, respiratory, endocrine, lymphatic, integumentary
what are the functions of the
1. nervous system
2. digestive system
3. skeletal system
1. sense, interperate, respond
2. breakdown food
3. structure and support
what are the functions of the
1. muscular system
2. urinary system
3. reproductive system
1. movement
2. remove metabolic waste
3. produce sex cells
what are the functions of
1. respiratory system
2. endocirne system
3. lymphatic system
4. integumentary system
1. breathing
2. hormones
3. body defences
4. skin
what is the function of connective tissue
extra cellular matrix
1. loose connective- adipose
2. dense- cartilage
in bone and blood (plasma)
what is the 3 types of muscle tissue
1. cardiac
2. skeletal
3. smooth
what is the function of epithelial tissue
protection, lining
what is the function of nervous tissue
neurons- transmitters
neurogliat- support
anatomy of the long bone
longer than it is wide
diaphysis = shaft
epiphses = bone ends
yellow marrow- storage of lipids and fats
articulatar cartilage-covers epiphses
what are the 4 types of bones
what are the 4 types of fractures
simple- break w/o soft tissue damage
compund- breaks through tissue (always complete)
spiral- twisting motion
greenstick- partial break
how does a fracture heal
1. hemotoma forms b/c blood vessles get ruptured (bruise)
2. fibrocartilage callus
3. bony callus
4. formation of bone
a. osteoclasts - destroyers
b. osteoblasts- producers
c. ostercytes- bone cells
what are the 5 types of joints
hinge, ball and socket, piviot, gliding, saddle
what is
1. flexion
2. extension
3. rotation
4. circumduction
5. abduction
6. adduction
7. inversion
8. eversion
9. pronation
10. supination
1. angle between joints decreases parts come closer together
2. straightening parts
3. moving part around axis
4. circular path (neck)
5. moving part away from middle
6. moving part toward middle
7. turing sole to middle
8. turing sole outward
9. palm faces downward
10. plam faces upward
what is muscle fatigue
inability to maintain contraction. build up of lactic acid
what is oxygen debt
amount of oxygen ecessary to break down lactic acid
where is the musicl origin and insertion
insertion is the more fixed point of attachment
insertion is the more moveable point of attachment muscle action pulls insertion toward the origin
what are the 7 ways that muscles are named
1. direction
2. location
3. size
4. number or origins
5. shape
6. origin and insertion location
7. action
what are the 3types of muscle tissue and where are they located
*cardiac- striated, uninucleate, involuntary
*skeletal- attached to bone/skin, long fibers, multinucleate, striated, voluntary
*smooth- walls of hollow visceral organs, uninucleate, unstriated, involuntary
how does a muscle contract
AChE removes ACh from the muscle fiber receptors --> relaxation
what is a synapse
region where one axon ending of one neuron meets, but does not touch a dendrite of another neuron
what is a neurotransmitter
chemical messenger
what is a reflex and reflex arc
reflex- automatic, involuntary response to change inside or outside the body
reflex arc- consisting of sensory neuron, interneuron and motor neuron
what is the function of the cns and pns
cns- the integrating and command center of the nervous system
pns- communication lines linking all parts of the body to the cns
what is the relationship between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
they bring about opposite effects on the activity of the same organs. what one thing stimulates the other inhibits
what are the 3 types of meninges and where are they located
dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater. they enclose the brain and spinal cord
what is the function of the cerebrospinal fluid
forms a liquid cushion, prevents brain from crushing under its own weight