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49 Cards in this Set

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Describe the main functions of the heart and the vascular system
circulates blood around the body. contraction and relaxation of heart moves blood through blood vessels
Name the 2 circuits of circulation. What is the difference between them?
-pulmonary circuit:carries deoxygenated blood from heart to the lungs and carries oxygenated blood back to the heart
-systemic circuit:carries oxygenated blood from the heart to all other organs of the body, then carries deoxygenated blood back to heart
How does blood move through the 2 circuits of circulation?
from regions of high blood pressure to regions of low blood pressure
Where is the heart located? What are the superior and inferior portions called?
-the heart is located between the lungs
-superior portion:base
-inferior portion:apex
What is the name of the "bag" that the heart sits in? What is its function? How many layers does it have? Name these layers and describe what they face
-prevents overfilling of heart with blood, allows for the heart to work in a relatively friction free environment
-has 2 layers:visceral and pericardial
-visceral pericardium covers the heart surface
-pericardial cavity is thin inner serous layer
Name the 3 layers of the heart wall from exterior to interior.Which layer is continous with pericardium? Which layer is continous with the blood vessels?What is the thickest layer and what is its importance?
-the layer continous with the pericardium is epicardium
-the layer continous with the blood vessels is the endocardium
-the thickest layer is the myocardium and its importance is to contract and relax to circulate blood through the vascular system
How many chambers are in a heart? What are the names of the chambers and where are they located?
-there are 4 chambers in heart
-2 superior chambers:right and left atria
-2 inferior chambers:right and left ventricles
What is the functional difference between the right and left sides of the heart?
-the right side pumps blood through the pulmonary circuit
-the left side pumps blood through the systemic circuit
In what ways are the atria and the ventricles different (anatomically and physiologically)
-the atria recieve blood returning to the heart from the 2 loops of circulation.Superior
-the ventricles pump blood out of the heart to the 2 loops of circulation.Inferior
What seperates the right side of the heart from the left?What is its function? What would happen if the right and left sides were inadequately seperated?
-interatrial septum is the wall between the two atria which prevents the mixing of poor and rich oxygenated blood.
Name the 2 vessels that are attached to the 2 atria.What direction is the blood flowing in these vessels?
-pulmonary arteries
-pulmonary veins
-blood returning to heart
Name the 2 vessels attached to the 2 ventricles. What direction is the blood flowing in these vessels?
-systemic arteries and veins
-pump blood out of the heart
Compare the thickness of the walls of the right ventricle to wall of left ventricle. Why is there a difference between these chambers?
the outer wall of the left ventricle is thicker because the blood that is ejected from the left ventricle has a further distance to travel.
Name and locate the 4 valves of the heart.What is the function of each valve? What are cordae tendinae and papillary muscles? Where are the found and how do they function?
-2 valves located between the atria and ventricles-atrioventricular valves
-2 valves are located between the ventricles and the great arteries-semilunar valves
-these valves ensure a unidirectional blood flow through the heart
-Cordae tendinae anchors the cuspcs of the AV valves to the lumen of the ventricles
-Papillary muscles aer finger like extensions of the myocardium.
-uopn contraction of ventricles, the papillary muscles contract and pull on the chordae tendinae which pulls the cusps of the AV valves downwarf towards the lumen of the ventricle, preventing their inversion.
When do each of the 4 valves open? When do they close? Why do they open and close? What sounds are produced when the valves open and close?
-AV valves open when the blood pressure in the 2 atria is greater than the blood pressure in the 2 ventricles
-AV valves close when the blood pressure in the 2 ventricles is greater than the blood pressure in the 2 atria
-The sounds produced are lub and dub
Trace the path of blood through the entire body beginning and ending at the vena cava.List all structures that blood moves through as it moves through both sides of the heart through the 2 circuits of circulation
-vena cava->right atrium->tricuspid valve->right ventricle->pulmonary semilunar valve->pulomnary trunk->pulmonary circuit->pulmonary veins->left atrium->bicuspid valve->left ventricle->aortic semilunar valve->aorta->systemic circuit
Compare and contrast the function and locations o the 2 different types of cardiac myocytes found in the heart
-working cardiac myocytes have actin and myosin that are capable of contraction which moves blood through cardiovascular system
-conducting myoctes are not capable of contraction, act like a neuron
What is the name of the "pores" that connect adjacent cardiac myocytes to one another?What is the structural and functional significance of these "pores" as it relates the overall function of the heart?These "pores" are visible under the microscope in large densities at locations called...
-Gap junctions
-allows ions to move between the cytoplasm between the 2 joined cells. creates an electrical synapse
-intercalated discs
Beginning at the opening of voltage gated calcium channels during the action potential of a working cardiac myocyte, list the sequence of events that occur to cause CICR.
the Ca2+ that diffuses into the myocyte during the plateau phase opens Ca2+ channels on the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum which releases he stored Ca2+ into the sarcoplasm.
what is the relation between the concentration of cytoplasmic calcium and the force of contraction os a working myocyte?What drugs or hormones can alter the concentratin of cytoplasmic calcium during systole?By which mechanism do each of these drugs or hormones work? How do each of these hormones or drugs affect the force of contraction of the working myocyte?
-CICR promotes interaction between actin and myosin resulting in the contraction of cell
-beta blockers are used for patients with high bp. prevents the bindingof epinephrine to the beta adrenergic receptors.decreases sarcoplasmic Ca2+
-Verapamil decreases intracellular Ca2+
How is calcium removed from the cytoplasm of a working cardiac myocyte so that diastole can occur?
-Ca2+ ATPase in SR membrane pumps Calcium out of the sarcoplasm back into the SR
-Na+, Ca2+ exchanger transports calcium out of sarcoplasm as Na+ diffuses in
Define autorhythmicity as it applies to the heart
the natural rhythm of spontaneous depolarization. Those with the fastest autorhythmicity act as the 1. heart's pacemaker.
Name, locate, and describe the function of each type of pacemaker in the heart
-Sinoatrial node
-located in wall of right atrium
-the freq of AP's in the SA node determines heart rate (sinus rhythm)
Name the conditions when the heart is beating at fast or slow paces
-high freq:tachycardia:sympathetic nervous system, increased cardiac output, exercise
-low freq: bradycardia: parasympathetic nervous system, cardiac output decreases, hypothermia
How does the heart rate increase or decrease as necessary to do so?What are the neurotransmitters released in each case? Where do these neurotransmitters have their target? What do they specifically do to their target? What happens to arterial blood pressure in each case?
-heart increases from cardioacceleratory center, sympathetic nervous system
-heart decreases by cardioinhibitory center and the parasympathetic system
-when HR increases, norepinephrine is released onto cells of SA node anda cts as an adrenergic agent and increases the frequency of AP's in SA node. Arterial BP increases
-when HR is decreased, acetylcholine is released onto cells of SA node and acts as a cholinergic agent which causes a decrease in the freq of AP's in SA node. Arterial blood pressure decreases
Follow the action potential from its initiation to its final destination
SA node produces an AP->atrial working myocytes->Bundle of His->purkinjie fibers
Name the 3 major peaks in an EKG.What does each of these peaks represent?What is the significance of their sequence?What is the relationship between these peaks and the actual systole and diastole of the chambers of the heart?
-P wave:depolarization of both atria
-QRS complex:depolarization of both ventricles, repolarization of both atria
-T wave:repolarization of all ventricular working cardiac myocytes
-the sequence is imp. b/c of the spread of AP from the atria to the ventricles
-P wave causes atrial systole
-QRS complex causes ventricular systole
-T wave causes ventricular diastole
What is the cardiac cycle?What is occuring with the volume of blood in each of the 4 chambers when they are in a state of systole and diastole?
The cardiac cycle is the cycle of events that occurs as the heart contracts. There are two phases of the cardiac cycle. In the diastole phase, the heart ventricles are relaxed and the heart fills with blood. In the systole phase, the ventricles contract and pump blood into the arteries.
Beginning at the P wave of the ECG, describe the sequence of events that take place during 1 cardiac cycle.Describe the changes in the electrical activity of the heart chambers.Describe changes in atrial,ventricular, and aortic pressures.Describe the changes in ventricular volume.Describe the opening and closing of the heart valves.
-P wave:depolarization of both atria
-QRS complex:depolorization of both ventricles and the repolorization of both atria occur at this time.
-T wave:repolarization of all ventricular working cardiac myocytes.
-electricla shock begins at the top of the heart and spreads rapidly in the heart to make the muscles contract.
-P wave causes atrial systole
-QRS complex causes ventricular systole,incresaing the pressure in ventricles and decreases pressure in the atria
-when ventricular pressure becomes greater than atrial pressure, AV valves close.when it is greater than arteries, the semilunar valves open and blood is ejected from ventricles into the areteries
-T wave->ventricular diastole->decreases pressure in ventricles
-ventricular pressure continues to fall until it becomes less than pressure of atria, causing AV valves to open
Define cardiac output.What are the 2 variables that determine CO?What is the relationship between these values and CO, what happens when either increase or decrease?
-Cardiac output is the volume of blood pumped by a single ventricle in a specific amount of time
-2 variables are heart rate and stroke volume
-if HR or SV increases, the CO increases
-If HR or SV decreases, CO decreases
What are the 3 ways in which stroke volume is controlled? Relate stroke volume to blood pressure
1)strength of working ventricular myocyte systole. the force of contraction depends upon amount of sarcoplasmic Ca+ during systole
2)preload on the ventricles
3)afterload on the ventricles
-during afterload, arterial blood pressure pushes on semilunar valves and opposes their opening
How does the contractility (strength of the heart)change (increase or decrease)?Relate contractiity of heart to stroke volume. Relate it to blood pressure/flow
-beta blockers decrease sarcoplasmic Ca+
-Ca2+ channel blockers decrease intracellular Ca2+
-Epinephrine increases sarcoplasmic Ca2+
-Cardiac glycosides increase intracellular Ca2+
Describe preload on the heart.Define the Frank-Straling law of the heart. Why/when would preload increase or decrease? Relate the amount of preload to stroke volume. Relate preload to blood pressure
-preload is the extent to which the ventricles stretch is determined by the volume of blood in the ventricle before it contracts (EDV)
-Frank Starling law:if the EDV increase->SV will increase. if the EDV decreases->SV will decrease
Define afterload on the heart.WHy/when would afterload increase or decrease? Relate afterload to stroke volume and blood pressure
-the arterial blood pressure pushes on semilunar valves and opposed their opening
-if afterload increases->the SV decreases due to an increase in arterial blood pressure
-if afterload decreases->SV increases
what are the 3 general types of blood vessels and what are their respective functions?
-arteries:carry blood away from the heart
-capillaries:allow for exchange of materials betweent he blood and cells of the body
-veins: carry blood back to the heart
What happens to the number and diameter of arteries as blood moves away from the heart?What is the name of the smallest arteries?What type of blood vessels do these smallest arteries send blood into?
-become numerous and smaller in diameter
-the name of the smallest arteries are arterioles
-sends blood into the capillaries
Describe the function of the capillaries.Compare the number and diameter of the capillaries with the arteries.After blood flows out of the capillary, what type of blood vessel does it flow into?
-allow for exchange of materials between the blood and cells of the body
-capillaries are the most numerous and smallest blood vessels
-After blood flows out of the capillary, it flows into veins
What happens to the number and diameter of veins as blood moves back to the heart?What is the name of the smallest veins?
-blood moves into vessels with larger diameter
-smallest veins are venules
What are the 3 layers that comprise arteries and veins?What is the 1 layer of capillaries? What is the structural and functional importance of each layer?
-3 layers of arteries and veins are tunica interna, tunica media, and tunic externa
-the 1 layer of capillaries are tunica interna
-tunica interna is a single epithelial layer (endothelium) and is continuous with the endocardium of the heart
-tunica media:smooth muscle, contraction causes vasoconstriction (decreases diameter, relaxing causes vasodilation (increases diameter. causes change in blood flow and blood pressure
-tunica externa is connective tissue with many collagen fibers that reinforce vessels
Comare and contrast the anatomy of an artery, capillary, and vein.What are the functional significances of the difference between the structures of each vessel type.
-tunica media is thicker in the arteries and the blood pressure in the arteries is much greater than the veins
-venous bp is very low
-movement of blood back to heart (venous return)occurs by contractino of skeletal muscles and valves in veins
what is the function of smooth muscle in the arterioles? What occurs in the arterioles when this muscle contracts or relaxes?
-causes changes in blood flow and blood pressure
-contraction causes vasoconstriction, decreases diameter
-relaxation causes vasodilation, increases diameter
What are fenestrations? what are their function?
-pores within endothelial cells of the tunica interna in capillaries
-allows for fluid and small solute exchange between the plasma and intersitial fluid
Define blood flow. what units are used to describe blood flow
-volume blood moving through an area of the cardiovascular system
-volume per inute
What are the 2 variables that determine blood flow? Define each of these variables. What is the relationship between these 2 variables and blood flow?
-blood pressure:produced by ventricular systole
-peripheral vascular resistance:opposition to blood flow through a vessel
What are the 3 variables that determine arterial blood volume?What is the relationship between these 3 variables and blood pressure?Describe how vasoconstriction and vasodilation alter resistance and describe why this results in a change in the flow of blood through a vessel.
-altering CO (HR and/or SV)
-altering plasma volume
-altering PVR
-an increase in CO, plasma volume, or PVR causes an increase in arterial bp
-variable mainly used for the regulation of resistance is altering volume of blood in arteries.
-vasoconstriction reduces blood flow, increases blood volume in all arteries, increases BP in all arteries and increases blood flow in all arteries except those that are vasoconstricted
-vasodilation increases blood flow, decreases blood volume in all arteries,decreases blood flow in all arteries eexcept those that are vasodilated
What is the cause of blood pressure?Describe what happens to systemic blood pressure from the aorta to the vena cava.Define and provide volumes for systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, hypertension and hypotension
-the cause of blood pressure is an outwardly directed force of blood on the wall of a location that it occupies in heart chambe or blood vessel, hydrostatic blood pressure,determined by the volume of blood
-systemic bp decreases form the aorta to the vena cava
-systolic pressure is the maximum hydrostatic pressure of blood exerted on the arterial walls during ventricuar systole
-diastolic pressure is the minimum hydrostatic pressure of blood exerted on the arterial walls during ventricular diastole
-hypertension:systolic bp>140
-hypotension:systolic bp<100
Where are the receptors located that will have an effect on blood pressure?How do chemoreceptors and baroreceptors communicate with the cardiovascular brain centers?How do these receptors respond to and increase and decrease in the following:arterial blood pressure, blood pH, blood CO2 levels, blood O2 levels?
-aortic arch and carotoid arteries
-baroreceptors monitor bp in systemic arteries
-chemoreceptors monitor the CO2, pH, and O2 levels in systemic arteries
-an increase in CO2 or a decrease in bp, O2, and pH stimulates the vasomotor center and cardioacceleratory center and inhibits the cardioinhibitory center
-an increase in bp,O2, and pH or a decrease in CO2 inhibits vasomotor center and cardioacceleratory center and stimulates the cardioinhibitory center
What is ANH? Where does it come from?Under what conditions is it secreted?What is its target?What is the effect of the target in order to restablish homeostasis?
-Atrial Natriuretic Hormone that is secreted from atrial wall receptors and targets the kidneys.The secretion is caused from an increase the volume of blood returning to the heart. The effect on the target is the kidneys increase sodium excretion
Define capillary exchange. What are the 2 variables in the capillary that allow for capillary exchange? What creates these 2 pressures?In which direction does each of these 2 pressures move water?What happens to each of these pressures as blood flows from the arterial end to the venous end of the capillary?
-movement of fluid into/out of the circulatory system occurs by a process called bulk flow and is due to 2 pressures that are capable of moving water
-2 variables: hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure
-hydrostatic pressure moves water into a region of lesser fluid volume. It is greatest at the arterial end of a capillary and decreases as blood flows through the capillary. Plasma flows out of the capillary through filtration
-osmotic pressure:pushes water into the region of higher solute concentration. Greater at venous end of capillary.Intersitial fluid flows into the capillary through absorption