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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name 5 Basic Skin Fuctions.
1. Keeps water and other molecules in and out of body.
2. Insulates and cushions the deeper body organs and protects te entire body.
3. regulates heat loss/body temperature.
4. Aids in exretion of urea and uric acid
5. Synthesizes Vitamin D.
Name the two kinds of skin tissue.
Epidermis and Dermis
the epidermis is made up of what kind of epithelium?
stratified squamous
the dermis is made up of what kind of tissue?
dense connective tissue
what is the name of hte 5 zones of the epidermis
name the five layers from inside to outside
stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum
What are most cells of the epidermis called?
Keratinocytes produce?
keratin- the fibrous protein that makes the epidermis tough
The stratum corneum is made of ________ layers
20-30 cell layers
what is the function of the stratum corneum
protects deeper cells from the hostile external environment
What is melanin?
A pigment that ranges in color from yellow to brown to black
What produces melanin? Where?
melanocytes, stratum basale
Why is melanin important?
it forms a pitment umbrella to protect from sunlight
What are the two regions of the dremis and where are they in relation to one another?
papillary(upper), and reticular (lower)
what does the papillary consist of and what are they responsible for?
dermal papillae, fingerprints
What does the reticular layer contain?
blood vessels, sweat and oil glands, and deep pressure receptors
Both _______ and _______ fibers are found throughout the dermis
collagin and elastic
What are the 3 pigments that contribute to skin color?
melanin, carotene, hemoglobin
redness is also called? and is caused by?
erythema, fever, hypertension, inflammation, or allergy
pallor is also called? caused by?
blanching, anemia, low blood pressure, or impaired blood flow
a yellow cast is also called? caused by?
jaundice, liver disorder
bruises occur when?
blood has escaped from the circulation and has clotted in the tissue spaces
what are the three skin appendages?
cutaneous glands, hair and hair follicles, and nails
the two types of cutaneous glands are ?
sebaceous glands and sweat glands
Where are sebaceous glands found?
all over the skin except the palms of hands and soles of feet
What is the oily product of the sebacesou glands?
what are functions of the sebum?
keep skin soft and moist, kill bacteria
active infection caused by blocking of sebaceous glands
two types of sweat glands?
eccrine and apocrine
where are eccrine glands found? what do they produce?
all over the body, water, salt, vitamin C, metabolic wastes, lactic acid
what is the importance of sweat being acidic?
inhibits growth of bacteria
eccrine glands help regulate body temperature by
nerve endings that secrete sweat when external temperature is hight
apocrine glands are found where?
axillary and genital areas
what are the secretions of apocrine glands?
fatty acids, proteins
Hair is produced by?
hair bulb/hair follicle
what does hair consist of?
hard karatonized cells
what are the layers starting from the inside?
central medulla, cortex, cuticle
what is the part of the hair enclosed in teh folicle
what is the part of hair projecting from the scalp
what are arrector pili?
small bands of smooth muscle closely associeated witht he hair follicle
arrector pili cause...
nails are heavily________
nails are a scale like modification of the ______
each nail ahs three parts:
free edge, body, and root
what are nail folds?
borders of the anil that are overlapped by skin folds
what is the cuticle?
the thick proximal nail fold
the stratum basale of the epidermis extends beneath the nail as the ______________
nail bed
what is the thickened proximal area of the nail bed
nail matrix which is responsible for growth
the part of the nail that appears as a white crescent
what provides pigment for hair color?
what surrounds the hair root?
dermal and epidermal sheath
what is the eponychium?
proximal nail fold that projects onto nail body