Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
endocrine gland
any of various glands, as the thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary glands, that secrete certain substances or hormones directly into the blood or lymph; ductless gland.
any of various internally secreted compounds, as insulin or thyroxine, formed in endocrine glands, that affect the functions of specifically receptive organs or tissues when transported to them by the body fluids.
turk's saddle
sella turcica

The "rider" in the sella turcica is the pituitary gland
a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla upon stimulation by the central nervous system in response to stress, as anger or fear, and acting to increase heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, and carbohydrate metabolism.
pituitary gland
A small oval endocrine gland attached to the base of the vertebrate brain and consisting of an anterior and a posterior lobe, the secretions of which control the other endocrine glands and influence growth, metabolism, and maturation. Also called hypophysis, pituitary body.
The part of the brain that lies below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon and functioning to regulate bodily temperature, certain metabolic processes, and other autonomic activities.
Addison's Disease
a disease characterized by asthenia, low blood pressure, and a brownish coloration of the skin, due to decreased secretion of cortisol from the adrenal cortex, resulting in hypoadrenalism.
human growth hormone.
A hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that stimulates the secretion of cortisone and other hormones by the adrenal cortex. Also called adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin.
second messenger
best example: cyclic AMP

any of various intracellular chemical substances, as cyclic AMP, that transmit and amplify the messages delivered by a first messenger to specific receptors on the cell surface.
one of several steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex and resembling cortisone in its action.
Olfactory bulb
the enlarged terminal part of each olfactory lobe from which the olfactory nerve originates.
limbic system
ring of interconnected structures in the midline of the brain around the hypothalamus, involved with emotion and memory and with homeostatic regulatory systems.
Olfactory neurons
the primary transduction cell in the olfactory system
cribriform plate
the horizontal plate of the ethmoid bone perforated with numerous foramina for the passage of the olfactory nerve filaments from the nasal cavity called also lamina cribrosa
gustatory cells
an epithelial cell in a taste bud that activates sensory fibers of the facial nerve or the glossopharyngeal nerve or the vagus nerve [syn: taste cell]
fibrous tunic =Sclera
a dense, white, fibrous membrane that, with the cornea, forms the external covering of the eyeball.
the transparent anterior part of the external coat of the eye covering the iris and the pupil and continuous with the sclera.
vascular tunic =choroid
a pigmented, highly vascular membrane of the eye that is continuous with the iris and lies between the sclera and the retina, functioning to nourish the retina and absorb scattered light.
ciliary body
the part of the tunic of the eye, between the choroid coat and the iris, consisting chiefly of the ciliary muscle and the ciliary processes.
the contractile, circular diaphragm forming the colored portion of the eye and containing a circular opening, the pupil, in its center.
A delicate, multilayered, light-sensitive membrane lining the inner eyeball and connected by the optic nerve to the brain.
numerous type of photoreceptor in the eye, they are sensitive to light, but do not interpret color.
less numerous photoreceptor than the rods, but they are the providers of the color sensitivity in the eye.
bipolar cells
A neuron having two processes.
horizontal cells
any of the retinal neurons whose axons pass along a course in the plexiform layer following the contour of the retina and whose dendrites synapse with the rods and cones
ganglion cells
A neuron having its cell body outside the central nervous system. Also called gangliocyte.
geniculate nucleus of thalamus
a part of the brain, which is the primary processor of visual information, received from the retina, in the central nervous system.
iris constrictor and dilator
muscles in the eye that contrict and dilate the eyes, allowing more or less light in.
a bright-red photosensitive pigment found in the rod-shaped cells of the retina of certain fishes and most higher vertebrates: it is broken down by the action of dim light into retinal and opsin.
an orange pigment, C20H28O, that is the active component of rhodopsin and is liberated upon the absorption of light in the vision cycle; vitamin A aldehyde.
optic chiasma
a site at the base of the forebrain where the inner half of the fibers of the left and right optic nerves cross to the opposite side of the brain.
Near and far focus
Ciliary Muscles relax for near vision, tens for far vision
Fovea, blind spot
spot in vision where you cannot see peripherally. There is one in each eye
Light induced change in a chromophore, resulting in the loss of its absorption of light of a particular wavelength. A problem in fluorescence microscopy where prolonged illumination leads to progressive fading of the emitted light because less of the exciting wavelength is being absorbed.
HYPERPOLARIZATION of rods and cones
A negative shift in a cells resting potential (which is normally negative), thus making it numerically larger i.e. More polarized.
Nerves/Muscles of the eye
Superior Oblique - Trochlear (IV)

Lateral Rectus - Abducens (VI)

Superior Rectus, Inferior Rectus, Medial Rectus, Inferior Oblique - Oculomotor (III)
Middle Ear, Eardrum
the projecting outer portion of the ear
auditory (eustachian)tube
a canal extending from the middle ear to the pharynx; auditory canal.
The hammer-shaped bone that is the outermost of the three small bones in the mammalian middle ear. Also called hammer.
An anvil-shaped bone between the malleus and the stapes in the mammalian middle ear. Also called anvil.
The innermost of the three small bones of the middle ear, shaped somewhat like a stirrup. Also called stirrup.
a small muscle of the middle ear that arises from the wall of the tympanum, is inserted into the neck of the stapes by a tendon that sometimes contains a slender spine of bone, and serves to check and dampen vibration of the stapes called also stapedius muscle
tensor tympani
a small muscle of the middle ear that is located in the bony canal just above the bony part of the eustachian tube, that arises from the canal containing it, from the cartilaginous portion of the eustachian tube, and from the adjacent greater wing of the sphenoid bone, that is inserted by a long tendon into the manubrium of the malleus near its base, and that serves to adjust the tension of the tympanic membrane called also tensor tympani muscle
stereo cilia
the general hair cells
KINO cilium
The big hair cell
A spiral-shaped cavity of the inner ear that resembles a snail shell and contains nerve endings essential for hearing.
tectorial membrane
a membrane having the consistency of jelly that covers the surface of the organ of Corti
basilar membrane
a supporting membrane, esp. the membrane that supports the organ of Corti in the ear and aids in translating sound vibrations into electrical signals.
hair cell Cilia of hair cell
an epithelial cell having hairlike processes, as that of the organ of Corti.
Accoustic Nerve #
the larger of two sacs in the membranous labyrinth of the internal ear. Compare saccule
the smaller of two sacs in the membranous labyrinth of the internal ear. Compare utricle
One of many minute calcareous particles found in the inner ear of vertebrates and in the statocysts of many invertebrates. Also called statolith.
semicircular canals
any of the three curved tubular canals in the labyrinth of the ear, associated with the sense of equilibrium.
cupulas of gel embedded hair cells
the bony apex of the cochlea
the fluid contained within the membranous labyrinth of the ear.