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166 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The CNS has 2 portions of the brain which are:
Encephalon and Spinal Cord
Parts of the Encephalon
1 Prosencephalon
2 Mesencephalon
3 Rhombencephalon
Prosencephalon divides into
1 Telencephalon (forebrain)
2 Diencephalon (between brain)
Rhombencephalon divides into
1 Metencephalon (hindbrain)
2 Myelencephalon (afterbrain)
Telencephalon contains:
1 cerebral cortex (5 lobes or hemispheres)
2 corpus callosum
3 basal ganglia (or nuclei)
Parts of cerebral cortex (hemispheres)
1 frontal lobe
2 parietal lobe
3 temporal lobe
4 occipital lobe
5 limbic lobe
frontal lobe functions (motor activity)
personality & voluntary movement
parietal lobe functions (sensory cortex)
awareness of general senses
temporal lobe
hearing
occipital lobe
sight (vision)
limbic lobe (corpus callosum)function
***MOST IMPORTANT***
learning, memory, emtion, love & sexual drive

***works with hypothalamus***
Basal ganglia or nuclei function
foundation for neural coordination
Disease of basal ganglia will produce
Parkinson's disease
Limbic lobe only seen
from inside
Parts of Diencephalon
1 epithalamus
2 pineal gland (from epithalamus)
3 thalmus
4 hypothalamus
Pineal gland (seat of soul) function
circadian rhythms (day/night cycle)
General Senses=parietal lobe
1 pain
2 light touch
3 temperature
4 conscious proprioception (cp)
Conscious proprioception (cp)
1 barognosis (pressure)
2 topognosis (location)
3 stereognosis (size,shape)
4 position sense
5 vibratory sense
6 2 pt. discrimination
thalamus function
relay center
hypothalamus function (homeostasis center)
controls all the hormones of the body
Parts of Midbrain (Mesencephalon)
1 corpora quadragemini
2 red nucleus
3 substonatia nigra (l.dopa)
Corpora quadragemini divides into
1 superior colliculi(2)
2 inferior colliculi(2)
***they work together***
Superior colliculi function
visual reflex center
Inferior colliculi
auditory reflex center
Parts of Metencephalon (hindbrain)
1 pons (relay area)
2 cerebellum
Cerebellum funcions
balance,equilibrium & coordination of movement
Part of Myelencephalon (afterbrain)
Medulla Oblongata (MO)
Medulla Oblongata contains
respiratory center & cranial nerves
Spinal cord contains
1 grey matter
2 white matter
Cavities of CNS contains
CSF (filtrate of blood)
In the brain the spaces are called
ventricles
the brain has ___ lateral ventricles
2 left and right
third ventricle located
between the thalami (in diencephalon)
Cerebral aqueduct (in midbrain)
tunnel between 3rd & 4th ventricle
fourth ventricle located
in front of cerebellum & behind the MO
ventricles house
CSF (cerebral spinal fluid)
**clear**
cloudy CSF indicates a sign of
infection, meningitis
pink CSF indicates
blood in CSF, trauma in brain = subarachnoid bleeding
CSF drains through the
central canal
Uncus(in limbic lobe) houses the
hippocampus (short term memory)
short term memory converts to
long term memory
long time memory requires
1 time
2 repetition
limbic lobe works with the
hypothalmus
bodily hormones responds to
the activity of the limbic lobe
Spinal meninges are layers of _______________ that surround the ____ completely
dense connective tissue
CNS
Nervous system is made of
1 CNS (central nervous sys)
2 PNS (peripheral nervous sy)
CNS is made of
1 cerebrum (or cerebral hemisphere)
2 brain stem (midbrain,pons,MO,cerebellum)
3 spinal cord (2% CNS)
PNS made of
1 12 pairs of cranial nerves
2 31 pairs of spinal nerves
3 ANS (autonomic nervous sy)
31 pairs of spinal nerves include
8 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
1 coccygeal
ANS includes
1 sympathetic system
2 parasympathetic system
3 sensory
sympathetic system contains
T1→L2 lateral horns of spinal cord
parasympathetic system contains
CN 3,7,9,10
SC 2,3,4
3 types of spinal meninges
1 dura mater (pachymeninx)
2 arachnoid
3 pia mater
dura mater is the
outermost layer
strongest
arachnoid is the
middle layer
reticular fibers
pia mater is the
innermost and thinnest layer
adherent to CNS
Subarachnoid space
contains CSF
****under arachnoid****
nerves located at bottom of spinal cord form the
cauda equina (tail of horse)
dura mater ends at
S2 sacral segment
__________ meninges surround the entire _______ completely
Cranial
brain
Features of cranial dura mater
1 falx cerebri
2 falx cerebelli
3 tentorium cerebelli
4 diaphragma sellae
5 cranial sinuses
____________ & _________ are median partitions
1 falx cerebri
2 falx cerebelli (partially)
Inferior saggital sinus sits on top of the
corpus callosum
Tentorium cerebelli acts as a roof to seperate the ________ of the _________ above from the _________ below
occipital lobe
cerebrum
cerebellum
Diaphragma sellae covers the________ and has a hole to allow the _________ to pass through
sella turcica
pituitary stalk
the ______ gland is lodged in the sella turcica
pituitary
Cranial Sinuses are cranial veins,they are:
1 superior sagittal sinus SSS
2 inferior sagittal sinus ISS
3 straight sinus
4 occipital sinus
5 transverse sinus
6 sigmoid sinus
Drainage of Sinuses
Sup.sag.sin Inf.sag.sin
\ |
\ straight sin
\ /
Conf.of Sin
/ ↑ \
trans.sin ↑ trans.sin
↓ occ.sin ↓
sig. sin sig. sin
↓ ↓
int.jug vein int.jug vein
headaches indicate
something in the brain expanding
meningitis is an infection of
the meninges and the subarachnoid space
symptoms of meningitis
1 headache & stiff neck
2 fever & confusion
3 Brudzinski's sign
4 Kernig's sign
5 cloudy CSF
Brudzinksi's sign
flexion of knees when neck is flexed tor reduce cervical pain
Kernig's sign
with hip & knee flexed, extension of the leg leads to neck pain
Arachnoid + pia mater =
leptomeninges
Arachnoid granulations drain CSF into the ___________
superior sagittal sinus
__________ of CSF is produced/secreted per day
500 cc
choroid plexuses is the site where
CSF is generated
choroid plexuses act as a
filter RBC to produce CSF
lateral ventricles (I & II) has
1 anterior horn
2 inferior horn
3 posterior horn
4 body
third ventricle(III)located
between 2 thalami
_________ connects the third & fourth ventricles.
cerebral aqueduct
fourth ventricle(IV)has
1 median aperature
2 lateral aperature
aperature is a
hole
flow of CSF
choroid plexuses→lateral ventricles→third ventricle→cerebral aqueduct→fourth ventricle→subarachnoid space
central canal connects to the
spinal cord
CSF flows out of the ___________via the ___________ & ___________
subarachnoid space
median aperature
lateral aperature
CSF is an __________ of blood plasma
ultra-filtrate
CSF is drained into the SSS via the _______or________
arachnoid vili
Pacchionian granulations
the rate of CSF _______ & the rate of ______ must be ______ on a daily basis
secretion
drainage
equal
CSF provides a __________ environment
weightlessness
brain immersed in CSF weighs_______
50 grams
nerve activity works ______ in an environment with no ________
best
gravity
Functions of CSF
1 to remove waste products from nerve metabolism,drugs & other substances

2 to provide nutrients to nervous tissue (glucose)

3 provide media for weightlessness

4 support & cushion
Doubles CSF pressure
sitting
Lessens CSF pressure
Flexion of head (head down)
Increases CSF pressure
Extension of head (head up)
coughing,sneezing,crying or straining_________ CSF pressure
increases
appearance of CSF
clear,slightly viscous & nearly colorless
CSF has no
RBC
chemical composition of CSF
1 glucose
2 protein
3 CA++
4 Na+,MG++,CL-
5 K+, P
Blood brain barrier acts as a
filter that allows certain elements to pass through the brain.
hydrocephalus is
water in the brain = big head
**common in unborn child**
hydrocephalus result of
1 too much CSF=increased CSF pressure

2 inadequate drainage
anoncephali is
big head,no brain
neuron is the
functional unit of the nervous system
human neurons cannot____
duplicate (no mitotic activity)
cell body of neuron called
perikaryon or soma
perikaryon has
1 central nucleus
2 nissl body or tigroid body
3 neurofibrils or thin filaments
4 axon hillock
nissl bodies or tigroid bodies are__________ and are made of__________ and make______
chromatophilic substances
rough ER
protein
axon hillock is an______ and is the entrance to the ______
area with no tigroid body
axon body
dendrites
sites of synapses(comm.between neurons)
axon contains
1 neurilemma (sheath of schwann)
2 node of ranvier
3 myelin sheath (lipids)
4 nerve fiber
5 neurofibrils
neurilemma (sheath of shwann)produce_______
myelin sheath
impulse runs from
receptor→cell body→axon→terminal ending
dendrites bring impulse to the
cell body
signs of neuron injuries/sickness
1 nucleus not central
2 soma swelling
3 nissl body not present
when neurons degenerate at a faster rate is a sign of
alzheimer's disease
Glia family are a group of _____________
connective tissue neurons
olfactory nerve (CN I)
special sense: smell
optic nerve (CN II)
special sense: sight
oculomotor nerve (CN III)
motor (eye):
1 medial rectus
2 inferior oblique
3 inferior rectus
4 superiour rectus
trochlear nerve (CN IV)
motor (eye):
1 superior oblique
trigeminal nerve (CN V)
sensory: face & ant 2/3 tongue
motor: mastication
abducens nerve (CN VI)
motor (eye): lateral rectus
facial nerve (VII)
sensory: ear
motor: facial expression & middle ear
special sense:taste, ant 2/3 tongue
parasymp:salivary & lacrimal glands
vestibulo-cochlear nerve(CN VIII)
special sense:hearing & equilibrium
glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
sensory:pharynx
motor:pahryngeal muscle
special sense:taste, post 1/3 tongue
parasymp:salivary glands
vagus nerve (CN X)
sensory:pharynx
motor:pharyngeal muscles execpt stylopharngeus
special sense:taste,post 1/3 tongue
parasym:lungs,heart,mediastinal organs, organs of GI tract
spinal accessory nerve (CN XI)
motor:trapezius & SCM
hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
motor:all muscles of tongue ending w/ glossus except palatoglossus
_______ pairs of spinal nerves
31
_______ pairs of _______ c1-c8
8
cervical nerves
___ pairs of ______ t1-t12
12
thoracic nerves
____ pairs of ______ L1-L5
5
lumbar nerves
____ pairs of ________ S!-S5
5
sacral nerves
____ pair of ________ Co1
1
coccygeal
Only 7 ________ vertebrae but there are 8 ________
cervical
nerves
_____________made of ventral primary rami from _________spinal nerves
cervical plexus
C1 to C4
cervical plexus function
provides motor innervation tomuscles of the neck
___________is made of ventral primary rami from __________spinal nerves
brachial plexus
C5 to T1
brachial plexus function
provides innervation to the structures and muscles of the upper limb.
brachial plexus has 5 major terminal branches:
1 axillary n.
2 musculocutaneous n
3 median n
4 ulnar n
5 radial n
CA of axillary n
epaulette shoulder
CA of musculocutaneous n
porter hand tip
CA of median n
ape hand
CA of ulnar n
hand of benediction
CA of radial n
wrist drop
________ made of ventral primary rami from _______ spinal nerves
lumbar plexus
L1-L4
function of lumbar plexus
provides innervation to anterior and medial thigh muscles (femoral & obturator)
________ aka sacral plexus made of ventral primary rami from _______ spinal nerves
lumbosacral plexus
L4 to S3 or S4
important lumbosacral nerves
1 sciatic n (largest)
2 pudendal n
sciatic nerve made of
tibal n and the common peroneal n
pudendal n S2 S3 S4 says....
S2 S3 S4 keeps ding dong off floor
NO SYMPATHETIC NERVES FOUND IN
CRANIAL NERVES
the cranial nerves with parasym. fibers are
CN 3,7,9,10
Somas located in the _______ horns of spinal chord segments
T1 to L2
_______of blood vessels are only innervted by _________ fibers
smooth muscles
sympathetic
PNS associated with ______ cranial nerves and ___________ spinal nerves
3,7,9,10
S2 S3 s4
posterior central gyrus
sensory cortex
1,2,3,5
general senses
anterior central gyrus
motor
4
regulate movement of entire body
frontal gyrus
conjugate eye movements
8
lateral occipital gyrus
visual cortex
17 size/shape
18 color
19 size/shape/color
angular gyrus
left side only
39
meaning of printed words
supramarginal gyrus
left side only
40
meaning of spoken words
superior temporal gyrus
41 pitch/height
42 meaning of sound
auditory center
inferior frontal gyrus
left side only
brocha's speech center
44
45