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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The autonomic nervous system is divided into...
sympathetic and parasympathetic branches
The motor pathway of the ans involves :
two motor neurons in sequence
the first motor neuron that exits the brain or spinal cord
preganglionic motor neuron.
the name of the second motor neuron of the motor pathway:
postganglionic motor neuron
cell bodies of the two motor neurons of the motor pathway form the:
parasympathetic and sympathatic ganglia.
__________________ neurons innervate effectors.
postgagnlionic motor
what are teh effectors which are innervated by postganglionic motor neurons.
cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, glands.
_________________ of __________ may stimulate some effectors but inhibit others.
neurotransmitters... postganglionic axons
the sympathetic branch of the ans is termed the :
thoracolumbar segment
the sympathetic branch is termed the thoracolumbar segment because:
the preganglionic motor neurons exit the spinal cord from the thoracic vertebra 1 (T1) through lumbar vertebra 2 (L2).
many pregagnlionic motor neurons synapse with postgagnlionic nerons within...
a double chain of paravertebral gagnlia located alonside the spinal cord.
some pregagnlionic neurons travel into the neck region where they :
synapse with cervical ganglia
pregagnlionic neurons below the diaphragm travel through the
paravertebral gagnlia and synapse in teh collateral gagnlia.(celiac adn mesenterics)
sympathatic mtoro pathways have a short.... and long...
pregagnlionic neuron and long postganglionic neuron.
adrenal medulla:
modified sympathetic ganglion adn consists of postgagnlionic neurons.
the pregagnlionic neurons extend all teh way to the:
adrenal medulla
the adrenal medulla secretes
epinephrine and norepinephrine
the parasympathetic branch is termed:
the craniosacral segment
the parasympathetic branch is termed teh craniosacral segment because:
the pregagnlionic neurons exit the midbrain and the medulla, as well as sacral spinal segments 2, 3, 4.
the gagnlia are located:
next to or actually embedded within the organ they innervate.
parasympathetic branch (craniosacral segment) has a very long _____________ and a short _____________.
preganglionic neuron and ahort postganglionic neuron.
Cranial nerves 3, 7, 9, and 10 carry...
preganglionic parasympathetic neurons
what carries preganglionic parasympathetic neurons?
cranial nerves 3, 7, 9, and 10.
__% of the parasympathatic preganglionic neurons are in teh ______ cranial nerve.
90... 10
the tenth cranial nerve is also called the _____ nerve
vagus
the sympathetic branch may undergo ________________ to prepare body for the fight or flight reaction.
mass activation
the body also mass activates when:
during intense exercise and in emergencies
the sympathatic system causes:
increased heart rate, increase in blood glucose, dilation of blood vessels to skeletal muscles adn constriction of blood vessels to the skin and visceral organs.
at certain times, some sympathetic reflexes may at ___________.
individually
the parasympathetic branch does not undergo
mass activation.
the parasympathetic branch causes:
the heart to slow, and promotes all aspects of digestion.
the parasympathetic branches functions have been described as :
"rest and digest"
in general, the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches have ...
opposing actions
all ANS preganglionic axons secrete
ACh.
Parasympathetic postganglion axons secrete
ACh.
Neurons that secrete ACh are termed
cholinergic
Postganglionic sympathetic axons secrete
norepinephrine
another term for norepinephrine:
noradrenaline
neurons that secrete norepinephrine are :
andrenergic
Two examples of cholinergic sympathetic neurons.
1. Blood vessels in skeletal muscles dilate in response to cholinergic sympathetic postganglionic axons.
2. sweat glands are stimulated by postganglionic sympathetic cholinergic axons.
What are andrenergic chemicals?
norepinephrine and epinephrine
andrenic chemicals can :
stimulate some structures but inhibit others.
The different responses of andernergic chemcials (n and ne) are due to:
the nature of the effector organs and their different receptors for neurotransmitters.
Two major kinds of receptor proteins have been identified and are termed:
alpha and beta receptors
constriction of blood vessels of the skin and visceral organs involves:
stimulating alpha receptors of their smooth muscle
Dilating bronchioles involves:
inhibition via the beta receptors of their smooth muscles.
in genteral, alpha andrenergic rceptors are _________ and beta receptors are ________________.
stimulatory, inhibitory
in general, beta receptors are inhibitory, what is the exception to this rule?
in the heart, beta receptors are stimulatory.
Drugs used to treat hypertension are :
selective for their effects on andrenergic receptors.
Propranolol:
blocks beta adrenergic receptors in the heart. This reduces herat rate adn lowers blood pressure
Phentolamine
blocks alpha adrenergic receptors. This causes vasodilation of blood vessels and lowers blood pressure.
The vasoconstrictor effect of sympathetic nerves always results from:
stimulation of alpha adrenergic receptors.
all of these neurons are cholinergic:
somatic motor neurons, preganglionic neurons of the ANS, postganglionic parasympathetic neurons
___________ effects of ______________ and ___________ are always excitatory
cholinergic.... somatic motor neurons and preganglionic ANS neurons
cholinergic effects of ____ are usually excitatory but the heart and a few others are exceptions.
postganglionic parasympathetic neruons
two types of cholinergic receptors:
muscarinic receptors, and nicotinic receptors
muscarinic receptors are present in:
all visceral organs innervated by postganglionic parasympathetic axons.
nicotinic receptors are present in all
preganglionic synapses of the ANS, and in neuromuscular junctions of skeletal muscle.
curare blocks:
nicotinic receptors, but has little effect on muscarinic receptors.
atropine is a drug that;
specifically inhibits the muscarinic effects of ACh ( it blocks muscarinic receptors)
Atropine is extracted from
the night shade plant (atropa belladonna)
atropine was used by women in the middle ages to
dilate their pupils and make their eyes more beautiful
belladonna is the common name for
atropine and means beautiful woman
atropine is used today to:
dilate pupils during eye examination (inhibits constriction)
atropine is used to treat:
spastic colon by inhibiting contractions of lower gi tract.
atropine is antagonistic to
muscarinic receptors adn will increase heart rate.
In the penis, the sympathetic stimulations does what vs the parasympathetic stimulation
symp- ejaculation parasymp-erection