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26 Cards in this Set

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____ – forms from mesodermal(mesenchymal cells and may develop with or without a cartilaginous template.
bone
_ : (aka. Bone formation)
- _ – no cartilage template, (eg., flat bones)
- _ – cartilage template, (eg. Long bones)
Osteogenesis
intramembranous
endochondral
Long bones are actually composed of 2 distinct types of bone.
- _ (covers the shaft and the ends)
- _ (in the center of the epiphyses)
compact
spongy
The functional unit of the bone is an _
osteon
A blood vessel is present at the center of each osteon (_)
Central Canal
Osteoblasts that have been surrounded by bone matrix are called _
Osteocytes
Although bone cells become encased in mineral deposits, they receive nutrients from other cells via connections called _, extensions of cytoplasm connected to adjacent cells via _
canaliculi, gap junction
- Bone is constantly being remodeled in response to the stresses placed upon the specific bone. Osteocytes continue to produce new bone, while cells called _ remove bone
osteoclasts
Functions of the Skull:
- protect and support the _
- regulate brain _
- dissipate excess body heat through evaporation in the _
- supports the _, articulation points
- supports the “_”
brain
temperature
nasal passages
jaws
voice box
What factors have shaped the evolution of the brain? (4)
enlarging brain
jaw structure (feeding strategies)
respiratory structures (organs)
endothermy (warm blooded animals)
Divisions of the vertebrate skull:
_ – supports the brain.
chondrocranium
Divisions of the vertebrate skull:
_ – most ancient of the skull components. Supports the pharyngeal slits.
splanchnocranium
Divisions of the vertebrate skull:
_ – found in later vertebrates, it is the outer casing of the skull (composed of dermal bones)
dermatocranium
Divisions of the vertebrate skull:
_ – the structures encasing the brain, may be composed of all three crania.
brain case
Divisions of the vertebrate skull:
_ – equivalent of the chondrocranium.
neurocranium
Chondrocranium:
_ – back of the skull.
_ – mesethmoid and turbinates in nasal passage.
_– ventral and ventrolateral chondrocranium.
occipital
ethmoid
sphenoid
Splanchnocranium: bones of the _
- middle ear bones – _,_,_
- _ – connects the larnyx and tracheal cartilages to the skull
hyoid arch
incus, malleus, stapes
hyoid
Dermatocranium: outer covering of the skull (6)
facial
orbital
temporal
vault
palatal
mandibular
Evolution of the Jaws:
- Upper jaw – in early gnathostomes was the _ (palatoquadrate). In Mammals, became the _ and premaxilla
quadrate, maxilla
Evolution of the Jaws:
- Lower jaw – (mandible) Began as _ cartilage in early fish. In mammals, is a collection of manbidular components including the _ (teeth).
Meckel's, dermal dentary
_ – diminished role in jaw function and increased role in sensory detection (hearing)
splanchnocranium
_ – greatly increased size to meet the needs of increasing brain size. Additional modifications to support greater sensory input.
dermatocranium
_ – relative to overall size of braincase, slightly diminished role. Sharks have exclusive chondrocranium (no dermatocranium) and mammals have predominantly dermatocranium.
chondrocranium
jaws – demonstrate wide variety of forms, largely dependent on the mode of _
feeding
_ feeders (sharks) were dependent almost totally on their jaws for capturing food.
predatorial
Mammals evolved _ teeth which allowed for other anatomical structures to aid in the acquisition of food. Teeth were became specialized for _.
specialized, mastication