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250 Cards in this Set

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Contains the mental nerve and vessels
Mental foramen
Contains the chorda tympani and often anterior tympanic artery
petrotympanic fissure
Transmits the nasopalatine nerve in the base of the skull
incisive canal
transmits the facial nerve through the base of the skull
stylomastoid foramen
Transmits the lesser palatine nerve and vessels from the base of the skull
Lesser palatine foramen
transmits the greater palatine nerve and vessels from the base of the skull
greater palatine foramen
Transmits descending palatine vessels as well as the greater and lesser palatine nerves from the base of the skull
Palatine canal
What nerves are contained in the cribiform plate?
Olfactory
Occasionally contains the small emissary vein from nasal mucosa to superior sagittal sinus
Formaen cecum
Contains the anterior and posterior ethmoidal nerves, arteries, and veins
anterior and posterior ethmoidal foraminae
Contains the optic nerve, ophthalmic artery, and central artery and vein of the retina
optic canal
Contains the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves, ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve, and ophthalmic veins
superior orbital fissure
Contains the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve
Foramen rotundum
Contains the middle meningeal artery
Foramen spinosum
Transmits the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves and labyrinthine artery
Internal auditory meatus
Transmits the condyloid emissary vein
Condyloid foramen
Contains CN IX, X, XI, and the biggining of the internal jugular vein
Jugular foramen
Transmits the mastoid emisary vein and branch of occipital artery to the dura mater
Mastoid foramen
Contains zygomaticofacial nerve
zygomaticofacial foramen
Transmits the supraorbital nerve and vessels
supraorbital notch
Contains the hypoglossal nerve and meningeal artery
hypoglossal canal
Contains the spinal cord, spinal accessory nerve, vertebral arteries, venous plexus of vertebral canal, and anterior and posterior spinal arteries
foramen magnum
Artery that ties itself if there is uterine hemorrhage
Internal iliac
I
loss of sensation and flavor in the first 2/3 of the tongue. Nerve affected?
Lingual; corda tympani of facial n.
Nosebleed for three days. Broken artery?
Sphenopalatine artery
A fetus of 16 weeks did not have a developed liver. What puts it in danger its life?
Loss of hematopoiesis
renal pelvis--Where does it drain?
ureter
Gland that splits subsequent of second molar maxillary
parotid
Which lobe is between horizontal and oblique fissure of the lung?
right middle
Clot in the common iliac vein lodges in which organ.
lung
A tumor in the hilum of the right lung anterior to the primary bronchus grows anteriorly. What structure does it compress?
Phrenic
Phrenic or Vagus?
A man that falls of a stair puts out his hand. What breaks?
Scaphoid
If a woman with kyphosis wants to look to the front she has to...
extend the column
Structure of reference to know if a hernia is direct or indirect.
Lower epigastric artery
Condition of the spinal column in pregnant women
lordosis
Nerve damaged in the foot drop
common peroneal
What type is the articulation among the facets articulares of the vertebres?
(Synovial)
Anastomosis that supplies the part distal of the arm if there is lesion of the axillary artery to the height of the pectoralis minor
(artery supraescapular or subscapular circumflex humeral)
Fracture of the surgical neck of the humerus--nerve affected?
axillary
Nerve affected with anal incontinence and urinary incontenence.
(pudendal)
A cancer in the subsequent and lower part of the kidney is watered to:
lateral aortic lymph nodes
In a CT chooses structure that receives blood mainly of the gastroepiploic artery.
Greater curvature of stomach
What is a lump in the lateral anterior part of the neck that does not hurt?
Pharyngeal fistula
You want to put a catheter in the femoral vein but by mistake inserted it in the artery. it should have been introduced or 2 cm in which direction?
(Laterally)
(femoral triangle is NAV from lateral to medial)
no sensation in the nose or upper lip. Nerve affected?
Maxillary n. – branch V2
Mucle affected if food accumulates in the vestibule of
the mouth
(bucinator)
Dislocation of the TMJ. muscle that pulls the mandible toward the front
(Lateral pterygoid)
A man falls with the shoulder and the hand remains in position of waiters tip. What is injured?
(superior trunk of brachial plexus)
naval urination
(urachal fistula where allantois persists)
What lobule of the prostate grows to compress the urethra?
(Middle)
persistence of the viteline duct.
(Feces –meconium- exits in umbilicus)
Nerve that is cut if the patient has hyperactive stomach or intestine.
(Vagal trunk)
Muscle affected when the hip drops when standing on one foot.
(Gluteus medius)
causes the absence of Aurbach myenteric plexus:
Hirshprung disease in intestine
(Failure in Neural crest cells migration to wall of colon)
Anosmia; csf rhinorrhea
CN I
O
Direct trauma to orbit or eyeball; fracture involving optic canal
CN II
O
Fracture of the cribiform plate
CN I
Loss of pupillary constriction
CN II
Pressure on optic pathway; laceration or intracerebral clot in the temporal, parietal, or occipital lobes of the brain; increased csf pressure
CN II
Visual field defects result from an injury of what nerve?
CN II
swelling of the optic disc (papilledema)results from an injury of what nerve?
CN II
Pressure from herniating uncus on nerve; fracture involving cavernous sinus; aneurysms result in an injury of what nerve?
CNIII
Dilated pupil, ptosis, eye turns down and out; pupillary reflex on the side of the lesion will be lost resulting from an injury of what nerve?
CNIII
Stretching of nerve during its course around brainstem; fracture of orbit results in an injury of what nerve?
CN IV
Inability to look down when the eye is abducted results from an injury of what nerve?
CN IV
Injury to terminal branches in roof of maxillary sinus; pathologic processes (tumors, aneurysms, infections) result in an injury of what nerve?
CN V
Trigeminal
Loss of pain and touch sensations/paraesthesia of face; loss of corneal reflex; paralysis of muscles of mastication; deviation of mandible to side of lesion when mouth is opened results from an injury of what nerve?
CN V
Trigeminal
Base of brain or fracture involving cavernous sinus or orbit results in an injury of what nerve?
CN VI
Abducens
Eye does not move laterally; diplopia on lateral gaze results from an injury to what nerve?
CN VI
Abducens
Laceration or contusion of parotid region, fracture of temporal bone, or intracranial hematoma (stroke) results in an injury to what nerve?
CN VII
Facial
Paralysis of facial muscles; eye remains open; angle of mouth droops; forehead does not wrinkle results from an injury to what nerve?
CN VII
Facial
Progressive, unilateral hearing loss; tinnitus; vertigo results from an injury to what nerve?
CN VIII
Vestibulocochlear
Brainstem lesion or deep laceration of neck results in an injury to what nerve?
CN X
Vagus
Sagging of soft palate; deviation of uvula to unaffected side; hoarseness owing to paralysis of vocal fold; difficulty swallowing and speaking results from an injury to what nerve?
CN X
Vagus
Paralysis of sternocleidomastoid and superior fibers of trapezius; drooping of shoulder results from an injury to what nerve?
CN XI
Accessory
Basal skull fracture results in an injury to what nerve?
CN XII
Hypoglossal
Protruded toungue deviates toward side; moderate dysarthria (disturbance of articulation)results from an injury to what nerve?
CN XII
Hypoglossal
loss of peripheral vision in both eyes (bitemporal hemianopia)results from damage to what structure?
Damage to the medial aspect of the optic chiasm
often seen with a pituitary gland tumor
affects the fibers of the ipsilateral temporal hemiretina (nasal visual field)
Damage to the lateral aspect of the optic chiasm
aneurysm of the internal carotid artery
monocular visual defect due to loss of input from the ipsilateral eye.
Damage to the optic nerve
one-eyed willie
loss of input from the contralateral visual fields of both eyes (homonymous hemianopia).
damage posterior to the chiasm
Supplies four of the six extraocular muscles of the eye and the levator palpebrae superioris muscle of the upper eyelid.
Somatic motor portion of CN III
(general somatic efferent)
Parasympathetic innervation of the constrictor pupillae and ciliary muscles.
Visceral motor portion of CN III
(general visceral efferent)
Somatic motor innervates the superior oblique muscle of the contralateral orbit.
CN IV
only has somatic motor component
Damage to what nerve will present as
extorsion (outward rotation) of the affected eye, vertical diplopia (double vision), weakness of downward gaze most noticeable on medially-directed eye, often reported as difficulty in descending stairs.
trochlear nerve
unopposed action of the inferior oblique muscle
the only nerve to exit from the dorsal surface of the brain
CN IV
trochlear
the only nerve in which all the lower motor neuron fibers decussate
CN IV
trochlear
nerve that has the longest intracranial course and the smallest number of axons
cn iv
trochlear
innervates the lateral rectus muscle of the ipsilateral orbit.
CN VI
Has only a somatic motor (general somatic efferent) component.
The exact control of eye movements requires input from integration centers in the brain that coordinate the output from the _______, _______, and ___________ nuclei which control the six extraocular muscles.
occulomotor, trochlear, and abducens
For eye movements in the _______ plane, the lateral rectus muscle of one eye and the medial rectus muscle of the other eye must work precisely together.
horizontal
Damage to what nerve or its axons results in weakness or paralysis of the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle.
the abducens nucleus
Medially directed eye on the affected side due to the unopposed action of the medial rectus muscle.
cn vi
Inability to abduct the affected eye beyond the midline of gaze (up to approximately the midline, the superior and inferior oblique muscles can abduct the eye).

Inability to abduct the affected eye beyond the midline of gaze (up to approximately the midline, the superior and inferior oblique muscles can abduct the eye).
cn vi
Strabismus - the inability to direct both eyes to the same object. When asked to look at an object located laterally to the side of the lesion, the patient's affected eye will be unable to be abducted beyond the midline of gaze. The opposite normal eye will be adducted to effectively fixate on the object.
cn vi
Horizontal diplopia (double vision) due to strabismus. Patients may compensate by turning their head so that the affected eye is focused on an object and then moving the normal eye so as to fixate on the object. what nerve?
cn vi
Assuming the lateral gaze center is intact, damage to the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) between the pons and occulomotor nucleus will result in a defect in lateral gaze. What nerve does this correspond to?
cn vi
Due to loss of input to the occulomotor nucleus from the lateral gaze center, the adducting eye is unable to move medially past approximately the midline of gaze.
cn vi
mlf syndrome
Monocular horizontal nystagmus is observed for the abducting eye. The abducting eye moves smoothly laterally followed by a rapid movement (saccade) back to midline gaze.
cn vi
mlf syndrome
Four components & functions of the facial (VII) nerve:
Brancial motor
(special visceral efferent)

Visceral motor
(general visceral efferent)

Special sensory
(special afferent)

General sensory
(general somatic afferent)
bvsg
Supplies the muscles of facial expression; posterior belly of digastric muscle; stylohyoid, and stapedius.
Brancial motor (special visceral efferent) branch of cn vii.
Parasympathetic innervation of the lacrimal, submandibular, and sublingual glands, as well as mucous membranes of nasopharynx, hard and soft palate.
Visceral motor (general visceral efferent) branch of cn vii
Taste sensation from the anterior 2/3 of tongue; hard and soft palates.
Special sensory (special afferent) division of facial n.
General sensation from the skin of the concha of the auricle and from a small area behind the ear.
General sensory (general somatic afferent)division of facial n.
Paralysis of all the muscles of facial expression ipsilateral to the lesion (LMN lesion of the branchial motor component of CN VII).
A lesion in the facial canal proximal to the branching of the greater petrosal nerve and chorda tympani
Loss of secretion from lacrimal gland and mucous membranes of nasal and oral pharynx ipsilateral to the lesion
A lesion in the facial canal proximal to the branching of the greater petrosal nerve and chorda tympani(lesion of the greater petrosal nerve, visceral motor component of CN VII).
Loss of secretion from submandibular and sublingual glands ipsilateral to the lesion
lesion of the chorda tympani, visceral motor component of CN VII
Loss of taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue ipsilateral to the lesion
lesion of the chorda tympani, special sensory component of CN VII
Loss of general sensation from concha of external ear and small area of skin behind the ear
A lesion in the facial canal proximal to the branching of the greater petrosal nerve and chorda tympani
Patient presents with facial paralysis, loss of taste, hearing deficit, but secretory functions of the lacrimal, nasal, and palatine glands are intact.
lesion distal to the greater petrosal nerve but proximal to the chorda tympani
Supplies the stylopharyngeus muscle.
cn ix (special visceral efferent)
Parasympathetic innervation of the smooth muscle and glands of the pharynx, larynx, and viscera of the thorax and abdomen.
cn ix (general visceral efferent)
Carries visceral sensory information from the carotid sinus and body.
glossopharyngeal nerve (general visceral afferent)
Provides general sensory information from the skin of the external ear, internal surface of the tympanic membrane, upper pharynx, and the posterior one-third of the tongue.
cn ix (general somatic afferent)
Provides taste sensation from the posterior one-third of the tongue.
cn ix (special afferent)
Supplies the voluntary muscles of the pharynx and most of the larynx, as well as one extrinsic muscle of the tongue.
cn x (special visceral efferent)
Parasympathetic innervation of the smooth muscle and glands of the pharynx, larynx, and viscera of the thorax and abdomen.
cn x (general visceral efferent)
Provides visceral sensory information from the larynx, esophagus, trachea, and abdominal and thoracic viscera, as well as the stretch receptors of the aortic arch and chemoreceptors of the aortic bodies .
(general visceral afferent)
Provides general sensory information from the skin of the back of the ear and external auditory meatus, parts of the external surface of the tympanic membrane, and the pharynx.
vagus n. (general somatic afferent)
Provides taste sensation from the epiglottic region.
vagus (special afferent)
Innervates muscles of larynx and pharynx.
cn xi, branchial motor - cranial root
(special visceral efferent)
Innervates the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles.
cn xi, branchial motor - spinal root
(special visceral efferent)
consists of preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the greater petrosal nerve and postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the deep petrosal nerve
vidian nerve
viral disease characterized by an eruption of groups of vesicles due to inflamed ganglia resulting from activation of a latent virus
herpes zoster (shingles)
mediates the efferent limb of the pupillary light reflex
oculomotor nerve
smallest and only cranial nerve that emerges from the dorsal aspect of the brainstem
trochlear nerve
provides sensory innervation to the eyeball, tip of the nose, and skin of the face above the eye
ophthalmic division
mediates the afferent limb of the corneal reflex
opthalmic nerve (from trigeminal)
mediates the afferent limb of the sneeze reflex
maxillary nerve (from trigeminal)
mediates the efferent limb of the sneeze reflex
vagus nerve
mediates the afferent and efferent limbs of the jaw jerk reflex
mandibular nerve (from trigeminal nerve)
lies at the knee-shaped bend of the facial nerver and contains the cell bodies os SVA, GVA, and GSA fibers
geniculate ganglion
branches of the facial nerve
greater petrosal, communicating branch, stapedial, chorda tympani, muscular branches, fine communicating, posterior auricular, terminal branches
branches of glossopharyngeal nerve
tympanic, communicating branch, pharyngeal branch, carotid sinus branch, tonsillar branches, motor branch, lingual branch
mediates afferent limb of the gag reflex
gva component of pharyngeal branch
mediates efferent limb of the gag reflex
vagus nerve
mediates the afferent and efferent limbs of the cough reflex (irritation of the bronchial mucosa)
vagus nerve
lesion of what nerve causes deviation of the tongue toward the injured side on protrusion
hypoglossal nerve
situated behind the eyeball, between the optic nerve and the lateral rectus muscle
ciliary ganglion
innervates superior, inferior, and medial recti, inferior oblique, and levator palpebrae superioris
oculomotor nerve
nerve that constricts the pupil
gve of oculomotor
mediates the afferent limb of the pupillary light reflex
optic nerve
produces bitemporal heteronymous hemianopsia (tunnel vision)
lesion of the optic chiasma
Bounded anteriorly by the tuberculum sellae and posteriorly by the dorsum sellae
sella turcica (turk's saddle)
accomodates the pituitary gland or the hypophysis
hypophyseal fossa
due to rupture of cerebral arteries and also veins
subarachnoid hemorrhage
due to rupture of bridging cerebral veins as they pass from the brain surface into one of the venous sinuses
subdural hematoma
due to damage to the small vessels of the pia and brain tissue
pial hemorrhage
associated with significant morbidity and mortality because of the formation of meningitis
cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis
producdes flushing and sweating instead of salivation in response to taste of food following injury to the auriculotemporal nerve
Frey's syndrome
most prominent point of the external occipital protuberance, which is used as a fixed point in craniometry
inion
occurs anteriorly as the mandible head glides across the articular tubercle during yawning and laughing
dislocation of the temporomandibular joint
intersection of the lamboid and sagittal sutures
lambda
intersection of the sagittal and coronal sutures
bregma
a craniometric point at the junction of the frontal, parietal, and temporal bones and hte great wing of the sphenoid bone
pterion
a craniometric point at the junction of the parietal, occipital, and temporal bones
asterion
a point on the middle of the nasofrontal suture (intersection of the frontal and two nasal bones)
nasion
separates the parotid gland from the submandibular gland
stylomandibular ligament
nerve responsible for lacrimation
greater superficial petrosal
combines an upper gliding joint and a lower hinge joint; reinforced by the lateral ligament and the sphenomandibular ligament
Temporomandibular joint
viral infection that irritates the auriculotemporal nerve causing severe pain from inflammation and swelling of the parotid gland, may advance to cause sterility
mumps (epidermic parotitis)
branches of the maxillary artery
mandibular, pterygoid, pterygopalatine
branches of the mandibular artery
Anterior typanic, Deep auricular, Accessory meningeal, Inferior alveolar
I ADAM
may be damaged in temporal injuries resulting in an epidural hematoma
middle meningeal artery
occupies the retromandibular space between the mandible and mastoid process
parotid gland
the jaws are opened and closed by what muscles?
open-lateral pterygoid

close--temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoid
sensory innervation to lower teeth and lower part of the face below the lower lip and the mouth
mandibular
branches of the mandibular nerve
meningeal, buccal, auriculotemporal, lingual, inferior alveolar, mastication branches (masseteric, deep temporal, medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid)
lies in the infratemporal fossa, just below the foramen ovale and contains postganglionic fibers that run in the auriculotemporal nerve to innervate the parotid gland
otic ganglion
supplies taste to the anterior 2/3 of the toungue
chorda tympani
supplies sensory innervation to the face
trigeminal nerve
innervates the area above the upper eyelid and dorsum of the nose
ophthalmic nerve (from trigeminal)
supplies sensory innervation to the face below the level of the eyes and above the upper lip
maxillary nerve (from trigeminal)
supplies sensory innervation to the face below the level of the lower lip
mandibular nerve (from trigeminal)
gives rise to the ascending palatine, tonsillar, glandular, and submental branches in the neck, and the inferior labial, superior labial, and lateral nasal branches in the face
facial artery
branches of the facial nerve
Temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, cervical, digastric, posterior auricular
communicates with the superior ophthalmic vein and thus with the cavernous sinus, allowing a route of infection from the face to teh cranial dural sinus
facial vein
list the layers of the scalp
Skin, Connective tissue, Aponeurosis, Loose connective tissue, Pericranium
list the layers of the cranium
external table, diploe, internal table, endocranium (dura)
fibrous sheet that covers the vault of the skull and unites the occipitalis and frontalis muscles
gala aponeurotica
dangerous area of the scalp b/c infection can spread easily in it or from the scalp to the intracranial sinuses by way of the emissary vein
loose connective tissue
blood supply to the scalp
supratrochlear & supraorbital (internal carotid), superficial temporal, posterior auricular, occipital (external carotid)
unilateral paralysis of the facial muscles owing to a lesion of the facial nerve
bell's palsy
marked by paroxysmal pain along the course of the trigeminal nerve in the trigeminal cave of the middle cranial fossa
trigeminal neuralgia
pustules or other skin infections (particularly on the side of the nose and upper lip) may spread to the cavernous dural sinus through the ophthalmic veins and pterygoid venous plexuses which anostomose with what veins?
facial
innervation of the corneal blink reflex (bilateral contraction of orbicularis oculi)
efferent limb is the facial nerve; afferent limb is the nasociliary nerve of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve
divisions of the thyrocervical trunk
inferior thyroid art.

transverse cervical art.

suprascapular art.
divides the subclavian artery into 3 parts
anterior scalene artery
What vessels arise from the 1st part of the subclavian art.?
Vertebral, thyrocervical trunk, internal thoracic
ends at the 6th intercostal space by dividing into the superior epigastric and musculophrenic art.
internal thoracic
Which vessel originates in the 2nd part of the subclavian art.?
Costocervical trunk (divides into deep cervical & superior intercostal art.)
Which vessels originate in the 3rd part of the subclavian art.?
dorsal scapular artery
arises from the bifurcation of the brachiocephalic art. on the right and the aortic arch on the left
common carotid arteries
lies at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery as an ovoid body
carotid body
boundaries of the posterior triangle of the neck
A-sternocleidomastoid
P-trapezius
I-clavicle
contents of the posterior triangle of the neck
splenius capitis, levator scapulae, anterior, middle, and posterior scalene, cn xi, external jugular, posterior belly of omohyoid, roots & trunks of brachial plexus, cutaneous branches of cervical plexus, transverse cervical & suprascapular vessels
divides the posterior triangle of the neck into occipital and subclavian triangles
omohyoid
boundaries of the anterior triangle of the neck
A-midline of the neck
P-sternocleidomastoid
S-mandible
innervates the sternohyoid, sternothyroid, and omohyoid
ansa cervicalis
innervates the platysma
facial nerve
baroreceptor located at the origin of the internal carotid artery innervated by a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve and the nerve to the carotid body
carotid sinus
innervates teh sternocleidomastoid
spinal accessory nerve
innervations of the digastric muscle
posterior belly--facial
anterior--mylohyoid (from trigeminal)
innervates the mylohyoid
mylohyoid (from trigeminal)
innervates the stylohyoid
facial
innervates the genioyoid
hypoglossal
gives rise to ophthalmic and middle and anterior cerebral arteries
internal carotid artery
origin of accessory nerve roots
cranial--medulla oblongata (below vagal roots)

spinal--lateral aspect of cervical segment of spinal cord (bet. C1 & C3)
Accessory nerve function:
cranial roots:

spinal roots:
Accessory nerve function:
cranial roots: motor fibers to the vagus, innervate soft palate, pharyngeal constrictors, & larynx

spinal root: innervate sternocleidomastoid & trapezius
branch of the brachiocephalic trunk on the right but arises directly from the arch of the aorta on the left
subclavian artery
branches of the external carotid artery
superior thyroid, lingual, facial, ascending pharyngeal, occipital, posterior auricular, maxillary, superficial temporal
formed by the union of the posterior auricular vein and posterior branch of the retromandibular vein
external jugular
receives facial, lingual, and superior and middle thyroid veins
internal jugular
violent separation of the head from the shoulder (motorcycle accident) resulting in paralysis of the lateral rotators (waiter's tip), or stretching of an infant's neck during deliver (birth palsy) results in what nerve injury?
upper trunk of brachial plexus
spasmadic contraction of the cervical muscles due to an injury to the sternocleidomastoid or accessory nerve avulsion
torticollis
causes paralysis of the cricothyroid muscle and may occur during thyroidectomy (accompanies superior thyroid artery)
external laryngeal nerve lesion
produces thyroxine and thyrocalcitonin, supplied by superior and inferior thyroid arteries and sometimes the thyroid ima artery
thyroid gland
2-6 ovoid bodies under the thyroid that regulate calcium and phosphorous metabolism
parathyroid glands
supplies the cricothyroid and inferior pharyngeal contrictor muscles
external laryngeal nerve
supplies sensory fibers to the larynx above the vocal cords and taste fibers to the epiglottis
internal laryngeal nerve
cord connecting middle and inferior cervical sympatheti ganglia
ansa cervicalis
surrounds the deeper parts of the neck and splits to enclose the SCM and trapezius
investing layer of deep cervical fascia
encloses the vertebral column and is continuous with the endothoracic fascia and anterior longitudinal ligament
prevertebral layer of deep cervical fascia
contents of the carotid sheath--
common and internal carotid arteries, internal jugular vein, vagus nerve
invests the larynx and trachea, encloses the thyroid gland, and contributes to the carotid sheath
pretracheal layer of deep cervical fascia
pathologic enlargement of the thyroid gland
goiter
describe the tracheotomy procedure
vertical midline incision from the jugular notch of the manubrium to the thyroid notch of the thyroid cartilage, then an incision of the third and fourth rings of the trachea
describe the cricothyrotomy procedure (preferable to tracheostomy for nonsurgeons in emergency respiratory obstructions)
incision through the skin and cricothyroid membrane
results in increased neuromuscular activity & tetany, may cause death if parathyroid hormone, calcium and vit. D is not provided.
parathyroidectomy
innervates anterior, middle, and posterior scalene muscles
lower cervical
divisions of the frontal nerve
supraorbital (scalp, forehead, frontal sinus, upper eyelid), and supratrochlear (scalp, forehead, upper eyelid)
mediates the afferent limb of the pupillary light reflex
optic nerve
an end artery that does not anastomose with other arteries and thus its occlusion results in blindness
central artery of the retina
innervation of eye muscles
superior oblique--trochlear,
lateral rectus--abducens,
inferior oblique, medial, superior, &inferior rectus--oculomotor
SO4 LR6 remainder3
causes medial rotation (intorsion) of the upper pole of the cornea
superior oblique and superior rectus
mediates lateral rotation (extorsion) of the upper pole of the cornea
inferior oblique and inferior rectus
depresses adducted eye
superior oblique (trochlear n.)
elevates adducted eye
inferior oblique (oculomotor n.)
contracts the pupil (parasympathetic)
sphincter pupillae
dilates the pupil (sympathetic)
dilator pupillae
injury to cervical sympathetic fibers characterized by miosis (constricted pupil), ptosis (drooping uper eyelid), enophthalmos (retracted eye), anhidrosis (absence of sweating), and vasodilation
horner's syndrome
spontaneous lacrimation during eating caused by facial nerve lesion proximal to the geniculate ganglion from misdirection of regenerating parasympathetic fibers
Bogorad's syndrome
spontaneous lacrimation during eating caused by facial nerve lesion proximal to the geniculate ganglion from misdirection of regenerating parasympathetic fibers
Bogorad's syndrome
loss of vision in the temporal visual field of both eyes due to lesion of the optic chiasma (tunnel vision)
bitemporal hemianopia
blindness in the nasal field of vision as a result of a perichiasmal lesion of the same side (aneurysm of the internal carotid artery)
nasal hemianopsia
loss of vision in one side of the visual field of both eyes due to a lesion of the opposite optic tract
homonymous hemianopsia
characterized by increased intraocular pressure due to impaired drainage of aqueous humor, causing impaired retinal blood flow
glaucoma
opacity of the crystalline eye lens or of its capsule
cataract
caused by paralysis of one or more extraocular muscles due to injury of the nerves supplying them.
diplopia
adjustment or adaptation of the eye to focus on a near object; contraction of the ciliary muscle, relaxing the suspensory ligament, increasing thickness, convexity, and refractive power of the lens (parasympathetic)
accommodation