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124 Cards in this Set

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Circulatory System functions
Transportation - gases, nutrients, hormones, excretory

Protection - prevents bleeding to death, white blood cells provide immunity
blood
-connective tissue
-matrix is plasma
erythrocytes
transport gasses
leukocytes
-5 types
-2 classes - granular and agranular, can move around
thrombocytes
platelets, megakaryocytes, serotonin, fragments of cells
hemopoiesis
blood cell production
myeloid tissue
red bone marrow, thromboctes, erythrocyes, granular
lymphoid tissue
tonsils, lymph nodes, spleen
heart
fist sized, asymmetrical, b/w the lungs, surrounded by a pericardial sac
3 heart layers
outer- epicardium - visceral pericardium

mid- myocardium - cardiac muscle, contraction

inner- endocardium - protective, forms valves, thicker
artery
takes blood away from the heart
vein
carries blood to the heart
trunk
artery that doesn't go anywhere, just branches
aorta
almost all of the body is branches of it
coronary arteries
bring oxygenated blood to heart muscles
anastomose
body's backup system
cornoary sinus
opens directly into the r. atrium
blood vessels
tubular network that blood goes through
arterioles
arteries get smaller and smaller
capillaries
oxygen and waste can diffuse across - functional unit of circular system - exchange of gasses occurs here
artery layers
tunica externa - CT

tunica media - smooth muscle

tunica intima - endothelium, simp. squa. epith.
great saphenous vein
largest vessel in body - into femoral vein
lymph
fluid of lymphatic system
lymph nodes
connected by lymph vessels
respiratory system functions
gas exchange, sound production, abdominal compression, keeps respiratory passageways clean
alveoli
functional unit, gas exchange occurs here
nasal septum
wall that divides left and right
choanae
region, open expanded back of nose, transitions into the pharynx
nasal cavity functions
filtration, sense of smell, sound production
nasopharynx
superior portion
oropharynx
back of oral cavity
laryngopharynx
continuous with larynx
auditory (eustachian) tube
opens into the middle ear, regulates ear pressure, can become a passage for infections from the throat
tonsil types
pharyngeal, palatine (post. part of tongue), lingual
larynx
carilagenous, produces sound, keeps food out of the respiratory system
thyroid
largest cartilage, shield shape, laryngeal prominence
epiglottis
keeps food out of the glottis - tongue rotates to position, pushed down, pushes down epiglottis
cricoid
ring shaped, trachea, allows thyroid movement
arytenoid
sit on top/back of cricoid, triangles
vocal cords
go from arytenoid to thryroid
trachea
cartilage, rings of individual cartilage (c-shaped)
gastrointestinal tract
tube, starts in oral cavity
digestive functions
ingestion - food in mouth

mastication - chewing of food, make saliva

deglution - swallowing, mouth -> stomach

digestion - mechanical and chemical breakdown

absorption - absorbs and goes to all parts of the body

peristalsis - smooth muscles contract to push food through GI tract

defecation - waste products out
mesentery
specialized expansions of parietal peritoneum, leave body wall surface
peritoneum
double layered membranes, most specialized of serous membranes

visceral - closest to body organ

parietal - assoc. w/ body wall
peritoneum functions
double layered to fix vessels, keeps intestines from tangling
falciform ligament
line in liver - attaches liver to wall
lesser ometum
attaches stomach to liver
greater omentum
fat storage area, lymph node in it, fat cushions internal organs, stops spread of disease
tongue
moves food in mouth, taste organ, ant. 2/3 in oral cavity, post. 1/3 in pharynx
palate
hard and soft palates
palatel rugae
tongue positioned here
incisors and canines
ingest food
molars
for mastication
heterodont
animals with different teeth
dyphyodant
have two sets of teeth
deciduous
baby teeth (20)
permanent teeth
2nd set, 32 (includes wisdom)
enamel
outside covering
dentin
softer than enamel, close to bone
cementum
where ligaments (periodontal) attach (gomphosis joint)
crown
part you can see
pulp cavity
where vesselss/nerves go through
saliva functions
solvent helps keep teeth clean, helps with taste, digestive function, mucous
bolus
ball of food
buccal glands
in the roof of the mouth
sublingual glands
under tongue, opens to ducts in bottom of the mouth
submandibular glands
right behind the mandible, bottom of mouth
parotid
right in front of ear, largest one, opens to top
constrictor
muscles, push down, close off when breathing to keep air out of the esophagus
esophagus
connects to stomach, very posterior on body, goes through diaphragm

top, skeletal - bottom, smooth

sphincter - prevents food back up
stomach functions
Stores food, digestion, limited absorption, moves food products into the small intestine
chyme
food after it has been broken down
4 areas of stomach
cardia - proximal

fundus - dome shaped

body - main part

pylorus - distal
pyloric sphincter
closes off between stomach/small intestine
liver
upper right quadrant, vascular, 4 lobes - synthesis, storage, release of vitamins/glycogin, phaocytosis, hepatic portal system, bile production
bile
yellow/green, gall bladder stores - breaks down and absorbs fats
cystic duct
w/ hepatic duct forms comm. bile duct/bidirectional
pancreas
hooks, glandular, odd texture, mixed gland
pancreatic duct
digestive enzymes, open into the duodenum
urinary system
maintains homostasis, regulates H2O and electrolytes, emitting waste
kidneys
major organs, nephrons within, right kidney lower, very vascular
ureters
tubes coming out of the kidneys, to bladder
urethra
tube that emits
nephrons
20-25% of heart blood => kidneys - filter blood, return food stuff, rest expelled as urine
renal capsule
direct contact with kidneys
adipose capsule
fat that holds kidneys in place
renal facia
anchors kidneys in place, ab. wall attachment
renal medulla
striations of kidneys
renal cortex
outside region of kidney
renal columns
smooth region
minor calyces
base of each renal pyramid
major calyces
come together
renal pelvis
come together, funnel shaped
renal pyramid
8-15 in each kidney
renal artery
off of aorta
interlobar arteries
branches
peritubular capillaries
surround urinary tubules
micturition
urination
internal urethral sphincter
involuntary, detrusor muscle
external urethral sphincter
skeletal muscle - voluntary
epiploic appendages
fat filled patches
gastric rugae
folded region, rough, allows for expansion
duodenum
ducts from liver and pancreas open here
jejunum
most absorption occurs here - 3 ft. long
illium
6/7 ft. long
plicae circulares
folds of intestine
villi
absorption structure
lacteal
part of lymphatic system, fatty acids absorbed
ileocecal valve
shut off from small intestine
large intestine
box from lower left, 5 ft. long, diameter 2 1/2 inches wide, reabsorption of water and electrolytes for body - form and expel feces from the body
cecum
ilium opens into this pouch
appendix
filled with lymphoid tissue
colon
tube all around
deglution
swallowing, passage from mouth to stomach
cardia
beginning of the stomach
fundus
dome shaped
body
main part of the stomach
pylorus
end of the stomach
stomach
upper left quadrant of the abdominopelvic rgion - stores food, digestion, limited absorption, food products -> small intestine
esophagus
connects to the stomach, posterior on the body, goes through the diaphragm
anus
opening at the end of the GI tract, controls fece release, internal sphincter (involuntary), external sphincter (voluntary)
taeniae coli
band of muscles, goes around, moves feces through the large intestine
haustra
large intestine sacs