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48 Cards in this Set

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What does the electrocariogram do and what does it contain?
-measures electronic impulses in heart
-contains P wave, QRS complex and T wave
What does the p-wave represent?
-atrial depolarization and contraction (systole)
What does the QRS compelx represent?
-ventricular depolarization and contraction (systole)
-atria repolarizes
What does the T wave represent?
-ventricular repolarization
What is a systole?
-muscle contraction
-p-wave/QRS= atricular systole
What is a diastole?
-muscle relaxation
What happens when blood fills in right atrium and what wave occurs here?
-stretches right atrium
-depolarizes SA node
cycle begins
-p-wave
What happens when impulse reaches AV node?
-both atriums contrast at the sametime
What happens after atriums contract?
-blood pours in ventricles
-impulse splits in branches to apex
What is early Ventricle contraction and what occurs?
-pressure in ventricle excess pressure in atrium
-shuts AV valve
-lub occures
What is late ventricle contraction and what occurs?
-Pressure in ventricle exceed in vessels (pulmonary trunk and aorta)
-opens semi-lunar valves
What happens when ventricular contraction ends?
-preesure in vessels exceed pressure in the ventricle
-creates back pressure
What happens when blood pour back?
-catches flaps of semi-lunar valves and closes
-Dub occurs
What happens when heart cycle ends?
-blood pours back into atrium and cycle restarts
Where does blood pour in from in the right atrium?
-from inferior and superior vena cava
Where does blood pour out to in the right ventricle?
-out to pulmonary trunk
Where does blood collect from in the left atrium?
-from lungs
What is coronary bypass surgery?
-To move blood past a clot using a piece of vein from the subclavian in the thigh
What is the coronary circulation?
-coronary arteries divide off of aorta directly after aortic semilunar valves
-coronary veins dump directly into right atrium
How do heart attacks occur?
-caused by build-up of chorlesterol plaque in walls of coronary arteries
What are capillaries made of?
-one cell layer thick
-simple squamous
-sometimes has basement membrane
What are tunica intima of vein and arteries made of, contain, and do?
-endothemlium and loose connective tissue
-has elastic laminal tissue
-keeps circulator smooth
-lines heart also
What are tunica media of vein and arteries made of?
-smooth muscle
What are tunica externa of vein and arteries made of and contain?
-elastic connective tissue
-contains blood supply from minature set of arteries and veins
How are arteries and veins the same?
-same number of layers
How are arteries different of veins?
-arteries have more muscle to withstand blood pressure and to create back pressures to close semilunar valves
How are veins different from arteries?
-have valves every 4 inches (except vena cava)
-surrounded by skeletal muscles and bulging pushes against vein (muscular massage)
-forces blood to flow up body to heart (same with lymphatic muscles)
What is the order of blood flow through the body based off of size of canals?
-large arteries (aorta)-->small arteries--> capillarie bed--> small veins-->large veins (vena cava)
Why do arteries have more muscle and elastic tissue?
-For back pressure and so that blood can't go backwards
-so blood goes foreward
-closes semi-luanr valves valves in heart
How do varicose veins form?
-valves aren't workin
-from standing on feet and pregnacies
What are capillaries attached to, what do they do, and what is the advantage of having them?
-attached on either side by arteriole and venule
-spreads oxygen and nutrients to cells of tissues
-when a tissue is not in use, blood flow is reduced to lower stress on heart and increase longevity (120 years)
What are pre-capillary sphinchers adn what do they do?
-circular muscle cells at beginning of capillaries
-biggest contributer to heart endurance
-when not heavily metabolizing, spinchers close and reduce blood flow
-vice-versa for metabolizing
What is normal blood pressure?
-120mmHg / 80mmHg
-left number is systolic (contraction) measurement (blood flow stops)
-right number is diastolic (blood flow restarts)(relaxation) measurement
What are they measuring?
-the differential b/t systolic and diastolic is what it takes to get blood into tissue
What is the normal blood pressure for blood flowing back to the heart?
-1-2 mmHg
Why is there a dramatic drop in blood pressure in capiilaries?
-no pressure due to perforations
-blood pressure ends at capillaries
What is the common carotid artery?
-comes up each side of neck
-at around the jaw-line, bifricates into internal and external carotid
What does the internal carotid artery provide blood for?
-to brain
What does the cternal carotid artery prvide blood for?
-external parts of head
What does the jugular vein bring blood to?
-retunrs blood from head to the brachiocephalic vein to the heart
Where does the brachiocephalic trunk provide blood for?
-braches off to head and arms
What is in the carotid sinus?
-baro and chemo receptors
-measure blood pressure to brain and CO2 content
How much of the blood supply goes to the brain?
-20%
Where does the basular artery receive blood from?
-vetebral arteries (parallel to vertebral column
Why does the circle of willis exist in the brain?
-so blood can go all over the brain
-superior to hypothalamus (how it monitors what's going on all around your body)
What major problem may occur with internal carotid arteries?
-enough blockage can cause a stroke
What's good about the internal carotid arties being near the surface?
-can do surgery easily if necessary (only if above 70% blockage)
Why are blockages not as important in other parts of the body other than the heart, brain and liver?
-more than one branch of blood vessels