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44 Cards in this Set

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Myofilament orientation
-thin and thick fibers alternate
-all fibers run parallel to each other
Myofilament orientation (m-line/protein)
-holds thick filaments together
Myofilament orientation (Z-disk/protein)
-anchors thin filaments
-attaches titin to thick filaments
Myofilament orientation (sarcomere)
-distance b/t z-disks
-recreating units
Myofilament orientation (H-zone/protein)
-individual thick filaments
Myofilament orientation (A-band/protein)
-length of thick filaments
-thick and thin individual filaments
Myofilament orientation (I-band/protein)
-individual thick filaments and titin proteins
Myofilament orientation (Titin)
-"coiled string"
-made of elastic protein
-lets sarcomere return to relaxed state after stretching
symnaptic cleft
-space maintained by connective tissue of ermysium
Myofilament orientation (order and cross-sectional view)
1. H-zone- hexagonal pattern
2. M-line- hexagonal pattern held together
3. A-band- hexagonal pattern each surrounded by 6 dots (thin filaments)
4. I-Band- titin surrounded by thin filaments
5. Z-disk- titin surrounded z-protein
Sliding filament theory
-thick and thin filament fibers slide past each other to make myfibrials shorter
Neuromuscular junction (synaptic knob)
-point of interaction b/t an axon and a muscle fiber
Neuromuscular junction (synaptic vessicles)
-made in synaptic knobs
-impulse casues vessicles to release neurotransmitters (acetylcholine)
Neuromuscular junction (neurotransmitters/acetylcholine)
-released in synaptic cleft
-flow to receptors on muscle surface
-most abundant molecule
-made in ER
-nerve--->golgi for packaging in synaptic vessicles and dumped into cleft
Impulse thru transverse tubes/muscle contraction (head hooking)
-Cu+-->sarcoplasm and bind w/ troponin to chnage its shape.
-pulls tropomyosin off of the active sites of the actin
-active actin sites attract myosin heads
-when heads bend, actin moves to left and overlaps
-then unhooks and repeats
Impulse thru transverse tubes/muscle contraction
-thin filament being pulled by 3 thick
-atp caused myosin head to unhook
-calcium returns to cistern
Neuromuscular junction (Esterase)
-comes from synaptic cleft
-enzyme that denatures a transmitter
neurotransmitter reuptake
-when there is no enzyme to nature the neurotransmitter, it is reabsorbed
muscle cramp
-prolonged contraction
Motor unit
-a single motor neuron plus all muscle fibers it services
-as few as 10 muscle fibers
-as much as 500-1000+ muscle fibers
Masseter
-strongest muscle in the body
Carpal tunnel
-sapce where tendons that move fingers pass through
carpal tunnel syndrome
-calcium reduces space
-median nerve is squeezed
-sensitivity, pain, and weakness in fingers
Groin pulls
-involves adductor longus and Illiopsoas
-happens during excessivly fast take off and lateral movement of muscle
hamstring pulls
-semimembranous involved
-semitendinosis involved
-biceps femorus involved
Central Nervous System
-brain cord and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
-cranial and spinal nerves
Sensory (afferent) system
-transmits info from periphery to CNS
Sensory (afferent) system (somatic sensory)
-receives sensory info from skin, joints, skeletal muscles, and special senses
Sensory (afferent) system (visceral sensory)
-receives sensory info from viscera
Motor (efferent) division
-transmits info from CNS to body
Motor (efferent) division (somatic motor)
-voluntary movement of muscle
Motor (efferent) division (autonomic motor)
-involuntary movement of muscles
-heart, digestive system
Dendrites
-receive impulses from other neurons
Axon
-long sheath that carries current
cell body
-main part of cell with nucleus
Direction of impulses
Dendrites--->Cell body---> Axon
Myelin sheath
keeps impulses traveling down the axon and not into neighboring tissues
-myelin made of lipids
Sensory neuron
-take info from body to CNS
-dendrite in tiny space of body
Motor Neuron
-many dendrites
-CNS to body
input neuron
-many dendrites
-within CNS
-connects sensory to motor
Unipolar neuron
-normal sensory neuron
-takes info to CNS
Bipolar neuron
-found in back of eye and inner ear
-dendrites about as long as axon
multipolar neuron
-motor neurons
-more dendrites