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82 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
viscosity
the ease with which blood flows throught the blood vessel
name 2 parts of blood
plasma and blood cells
plasma
pale yellow fluid composed mostly of water. Also contains protein, ions, nutrients, gases and waste
albumin
plasma protein that has various clooting factors, antibodies, and complete proteins,
serum
plasma minus the clotteing proteins
RBCs
erythrocytes transport of oxygen
WBCs
leukocytes, protect body from infection
platelets
thrombocytes protect body from bleeding
hematocrit
blood test of the separation of blood into two phases % of blood in the sample
hematopoiesis
the process of blood cell production
2 types of hematopoietic tissues
red bone marrow and lymphatic tissue
stem cells
blood cells produced in red bone marrow fromthe same cell
lymphocytes
agranulocytes originate in bone marrow some mature and reproduce in the lymphatic tissue play important role in body immune system
monocytes
agranulocytes originate in bone marrow some mature and reproduce in the lymphatic tissue is also phagocytotic
megakaryocytes
large blood cell that breaks up into tiny fragments, platelet
myelosuppression
bone marrow depression
anemia
severe deficiency of RBCs aplastic anemia
leukopenia
deficiency of WBCs
thrombocytopenia
inadequate numbers of platelets
polycythemia vera
excess production of RBCs
reticulocyte
immature RBC
hemoglobin
large protein molecule made up of 2 parts
2 parts of hemoglobin
protein (heme)
iron (globin)
oxyhemoglobin
oxygenated hemoglobin
carbaminohemoglobin
cargbon monoxide hemoglobin
cynanosis
sign of hypoxemia a deficiency of oxygen in the blood
intrinsic factor
normally secreted by the lining of the stomachabsorption of vitamin b12 requires a transport protein
pernicious anemia
inadequate absorption of vitamin b12
erythropoietin
kidneys sense the need for additional oxygen they secret a this hormone. epo stimulates the bone marrow to relese rbsc into the circulation
life spane of RBC
120 days
mature RBC has no nucleus it cannot reproduce and must be replaces as it wears out.
macrophages
big eaters, remove the RBC from circulation and phagocytose them either wandering or fixed cleaning up debris
hemolysis
brake down of RBCs
hemolytic anemia
brake down of RBCs rapidly exceeding the rate of RBC replacement
WBCs
leukocytes large round cells that contain nuclei protect body by destroying disease-producing microorganisms
phagocytosis
removal of dead tissue and other cellular debris
leukocytosis
increase in number of WBCs
2 classifications of WBCs
granulocytes and agranulocytes
granulocytes
produces in bone marrow neutrophils basophils and eosinophils
agranulocytes
lymphocytes and monocytes
neutrophil
most common role is phagocytosis move to site of infectione and remove tissue debris
pus
collection of dead neutrophils parts of cells, and fluid
neutropenia
deficiency of neutrophils
polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs)
many-shaped nucleus neutrophils
segs
neutrophils that the nucleus appears segmented
band cells
immature neutrophil look like a thick, curved band
staff cells
because band cells also look like a staff
stab cells
also known as nuetrophls
shift to the left
immature neutrophil bands become prominent in the different WBC count
differential count
proveds valuable diagnostic information because it indicates which WBC is involved
basophils
2nd type of granulocytic WBC plays a rold in the inflammatory response, throught release of histamine
heparin
released by basophil an anticoagulant reduce the formation of tiny blood cells
eosinophil
3rd type of granolcyte involved in inflammatory respone, secreting chemicals that destroy certain parasites, engage in phagocytosis, elevated with allergies
platelets
aka thrombocytes, tiniest blood cell, produced in red bone marrow prevent blood loss
thrombocytopenia
failure of bone marrow to replace platelets aka petechia
complete blood coutn CBC
laboratory test that provides information about the composition of the blood.
hemostasis
process that stops bleeding 3 events blood vessel spasm, formation of platelet plug, blood clotting
vascular spasm
when a blood vessel is injured the muscle in blood vessel contracts
platelet plug
blood vessel torn, inner lining of vessel activates platelets, they become sticky and adhere to inner lining of vessel and each other making a blood clot
used to suppress homostasis
aspirin
blood clotting (coagulation
3rd step in hemostates large tear in blood vessel results in the formation of netlike sturcture
fibrin
the netlike sturcture composed of protein fibers
1st stage of blood coagulation
clotting factors produce substance called prothrombin activator
2nd stage of blood coagulation
thrombin
presence of calcium prothrombin is activated to form thrombin
3rd stage of blood coagulation
thrombin activates fibrinogen forms the net
tw most important mechanisms prevent blood clotting.
smooth inner lining, (endothelium) of blood vessel and heparin
endothelium
inner lining of the blood vessels, smooth and shiny allows blood to flow easily
heparin
secreted by mast cells (basophils in and around the liver and lungs) acts as anticoagulant by removing thrombin from clotting process.
thrombus
blood clot
embolus
a piece of the thrombus that broke off and travels throught the blood to the lungs
2 types of anticoagulants
heparin and coumadin
coumadin
prevents clot formation by decreaseing prothrombin in the blood synthesis of vitamin k
clot retraction
process of clot becoming smaller as water is squeezed out
fibrinolysis
process of dissolving a clot
plasmin
disolves the clot
plasminogen
inactive form of plasmin
TPA tissue plasminogen activator
formed by injured tissue activates plaminogen
abo grouping
contains a b o and ab blood groups
antibodies
found in the plasma of blood type inactivate specific substances in blood
agglutination
the clumping of the antigen-antibody interaction
hemolysis
rbcs burst or lyse the process
universal donor
o blood type
universal recipent
ab blood type