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21 Cards in this Set

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Pressures (5)
Atmospheric Pressure
Alveolar Pressure
Intraoral Pressure
Intrapleural Pressure
Subglottal Pressure
Atmospheric Pressure
Measured at sea level
displaces 760 mm of mercury
treated as zero
Alveolar Pressure
Pressure inside the alveoli
becomes more negative upon inhalation
exhale, becomes more positive
Intrapleural pressure
Pressure between visceral and parietal pleura
Always negative
becomes more negative as we inhale
Subglottal pressure
Below the level of the vocal folds
Vocal folds closed = + pressure
Vocal folds open = atmospheric pressure
Intraoral pressure
Pressure in mouth
Mouth open = atmospheric pressure
Mouth closed = + pressure (for stops/plosives)
Respiration for Speech
Subglottal pressure
When talking normally, we need about 3-5 cm of water to start vocal folds
(7 to 10 for loud)
Inspiration vs Expiration Cycle
Life vs Speech
Life = 40% inhaling, 60% exhaling
Speech = 10% inhaling, 90% exhaling
"checking action"
use of Expiratory Reserve
Muscular Activity
Life vs Speech
Life = just diaphragm to inhale
Speech =
For inhaling: Diaphragm, External intercostals
For exhaling: Internal intercostals, External obliques, Rectus Abdominus, Latissimus Dorsi
Anatomy of Phonation
vocal folds
larynx
pharynx
glottis - space between vocal folds
subglottis - below vocal folds
Mechanics of vibration (5)
Vibration
Elasticity
Stiffness
Inertia
Cycle
Vibration
if no resistance, it will go on forever
Elasticity
property to allow it to return to original shape
Stiffness
back to same length, shape, size
Inertia
Property of a body in motion stays in motion, body at rest stays at rest
Cycle
one inspiration, one expiration
Opening and closing of vocal folds
Frequency = cycles/second = Hz
Diaphragm
bowl-shaped muscle
primary muscle of inspiration
attached at xiphoid process anteriorally, vertebral column (lumbar) posteriorally, ribs laterally
parts of Diaphragm (4)
Central tendon
Esophogeal Hiatus
Aortic Hiatus (blood supply going down)
Foramen Vena Cava (blood supply for veins going up)
Bernoulli effect
Given a constant volume (flow of air), at a point of constriction, there will be decrease in air pressure perpendicular to the flow of air and an increase in the velocity of the flow
checking action
gradual release of air while speaking
english sounds that use the phonatory mechanism
vowels
b, z, m, v, th (unaccented) and dj