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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Matter?
Anything that takes up space and has weight (mass)
What is an element?
-unique substance
-building blocks of matter -cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical methods
How many elements exist

name some
114 known
92- natrually occuring
Iron, copper, silver, gold, aluminum, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Which 4 elements make up 96% of the human body?
Bulk Elements or Major Elements
-Body requires in large amounts

-In addition to COHN, sulfur and phosphorus
Trace Elements
-Required by the body in small amounts.
-Often important parts of enzymes
-some are toxic in lg. amounts
What are elements made of?
What is an atom?

What is it made of?
-make up elements
-smallest particle that still has the element's properties
-chemically identical, differ in size, weight, interaction
2 or more atoms of DIFFERENT elements in chemical combination
What is the atomic structure?
Electron Cloud
Nucleus= Protons (+)
Neutrons (no charge)
Electons (-)
-move around the nucleus
-small / carry no weight
-carry a single - charge (e-)
large atomic particle
carries a + electrical charge
what is the charge of an atom?
no charge
what accounts for the charge of an atom
The number of electrons and the number of protons are equal, thus electrically neutral
Particle that is electrically charged because it has lost or gained one or more electrons
2 or more atoms of the same or different elements in chemical combination
Atomic Weight
-Number of Protons + Neutrons in an atom

-located on periodic table below the symbol for ea. element
Atomic Number
-Number of protons (or electons) in an atom
-On the periodic table above the symbol for each element
Name some subatomic particles:
Atom, electron, proton, neutron
What are the characteristics of a Stable Atom
-Outer shell is filled (contains the maximum amount of electrons it can hold)

-stable atoms are also INERT
Characteristics of an Unstable atom
-Outermost shell unfilled

-reveal their instability by being highly reactive
What is an Isotope?
isotopes of an element have the same number of protons & electrons, but different numbers of neutrons
-SAME atomic number, DIFF. atomic mass
How do like and unlike charges act?
Opposite charges attract
Like charges repel
Wha is the formula for determining the max number of electrons?
X=2n squared

n= energy level #
X= max # of electrons
Atoms combine to form________
-Heavier isotopes tend to decompose to become stable
-This decay process is called radioactivity
Radioactive Decay
involves the ejection of particles (alpha, beta) or electromagnetic energy (gamma rays) from the atoms nucleus and are damaging to living cells
Alpha Emission
-Type of atomic radiation
-Ejection of particles from the nucleus
-can't easily penetrate matter
-has the least penetrating power
Gamma Rays
Form of Atomic Radiation produced by radioactive isotopes
-Has the most penetrating power
How are radioisotopes used in medicine?
-In minute amounts, to tag biological molecules so they can be traced through the body.
-Medical disgnosis and treatment
-Iodine- scan thyroid
-Cobalt- destroy cancers
What is a molecule
2 or more atoms of the same or different elements

-combine to form a distinctive particle

2 or more atoms of different elments
What types of events occur as a result of radioactive isotopes?
Alpha, beta: the ejection of particles or electromagnetic enegry Gama rays fromt he atom's nucleus
Ionic Bonding is also called
Electron Transfer or Ionic or Ionization Reactions
What is Ionic Bonding?
When atoms w/ unfilled valence shells encounter each other., their unfilled valence shells make them undergo a chemical reaction (gain or loss of an electron)
True or False?
The atoms of most elements have valence shells that are unfilled?
True. They are unstable , ie unreactive.
a positively charged ion

-attracted to its opposite charge: Cathode (-)
a negatively charged ion (Cl-)

Attracted to it's opposite, an anion (-)
-Love to lose
-tend to form H+
Any substance that yields (loses, gives up) Hydrogen (ie protons) in water
Love to gain
-Accept Hydrogen ions or protons
-ex: hydroxides ie sodium hydroxide
Tend to form (OH-)
Compound that yields ions other than hydrogen
Acids, bases, salts
-Conduct electricity because of the presence of ions
strong acids have a pH of? and what are their characteristics?
Ionize completely, produce large amts. of H ions
Weak acids have a pH of? What re it's characteristics
5.1 -6.9
Ionize incompletely producing a small amt of H ions
Water pH?
Equal numbers of H and Hydroxl (OH)
pH of Bases
Accept hydrogen Ions(protons) in solution.
Often release OH (hydroxyl) in water
What is Synthesis? Example of Synthesis in the human body?
Synthesis: 2 or more atoms combine to form a larger, more complex molecule
A + B = AB

Example: growth / repair of tissues; fomation of protein by joining amino acids
Building blocks of an atom?
Subatomic particles
Basic units of a compound?
pH scale measures
concentration of Hydrogen ions in water
a solution that produces equal numbers of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions is called
Neutral (as in water)
isotopes of an element have the same number of_____ and _____and different numbers of ________
protons and electrons

diff. no of neutrons

(or same atomic #, different atomic mass)
Atoms of the same element have the same numbers of protons and electrons, but a different number of neutrons. True or false
Describe an organic compound
-has carbon
-compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen bonding

-body ex: (CLPN)carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
Inorganic compounds
Do not contain carbon (carbon-hydrogen bonding)

-water, salts, acids and bases
breakdown of a more complex molecule into its building blocks.

water is added, bond is broken, simpler molecules are formed.
HCL--->H+ + CL-

acid, base or salt?
note the H+
NaCl--->Na+ + Cl-

acid, base or salt

yields other than an acid or base
MgOH2--->mg++ +2 OH-

acid, base or salt

note OH-
What elements comprise Carbohydrates?
What is a sample carbohydrate?
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only
-include nucleic acids
-samples: mono, di & polysaccharides
-Function: Provide energy / cell structure
-water soluble
Many carry hydrogen and oxygen in the same ration in water 2:1

C12 H22 O11 and C5 H10 O5
Name three types of carbohydrates
Monosaccharides (end in ose)
Contain same elements as carbohydrates: carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. But lower amts. of Oxygen
-insoluble in water
-Most common lipids: FATS
-Include: Fats, phospholipids and steroids
What are the types of chemical reactions
Involves both synthesis and decomposition.

A switch is made b/w molecule parts
AB + CD----> AD + CB
What are samples of organic compounds in the body?
Nucleic Acids
What are samples of inorganic compounds in the body?
Water, salts and many acids and bases
What is an electrolyte? What are some examples in the body?
Substance that conduct electrical current in solution

Acids, bases and salts