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10 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
command and control policies
(Standards) Mandate a "desirable" behavior into law, then use whatever enforcement procedures necessary.
ambient standards
a "never-exceeded" level for some pollutant in the environment => for environment in general.
issues with ambient standards
a)not directly enforcable
b)need to allow for seasonal and daily variation.
emissions standards (book:performance based standards)
a "never-exceeded" level applied directly to emissions comming from pollution sources.
technology standards
designates specific equipment or techniques that polluters must adopt. Also includes input standards -> what you can/can't put into products.
Determinants to benefits/damages (MSB/MD curve)
a)type of pollutant
b)population (density)
c)ecosystem sesitivity
d)weather, atmosphere, time, etc..
setting the standards
1)begins through an adminsitrative/legislative process.
2)once set, standards maintain an all-or-nothing quality.
Determanents of abatement costs (MAC curve)
a)type of pollution.
b)source of pollution (# of sources in the market - MACmkt).
c)technology, time.
allocative efficiency of standards
a)Legislative problems (ex. benefits-based standards:no consideration of costs).

b)Imperfect information: (1) Difficult to estimate value of damages. (2) Need each firm's MAC and estimate enforcement costs.

c)Regional Differences (urban {higher population} vs. rural).

d)Uniformity: if sources are different distances from affected areas.

e)policy trade-offs: The more specifically a standard is fitted to any situation, the more efficient it will be , but the more costly it is to gather info, set the standards, and enforce them.
Enforcement costs {marginal costs of enforcement - MCE}
1)Monitoring costs (keep track of firms)
2)Sanctioning costs (costs of prosocuting violators)