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### 70 Cards in this Set

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 Qualitative Analysis identification Quantitave Analysis relative amounts Calibration Equation Ca = k X Ca = concentration of analyte k = proportionality constant X = measurment Determinate Error or Systematic Error errors with a definate value Indeterminate Error or Random Error errors which fluctuate in a random fashion What are the sources of determinate error? instrument, method, and personal Accuracy agreement of a measurment/result (Xi) with its true value (Xt) What is accuracy dependent upon? knowing the true value Absolute Error Equation Er = Xi - Xt Xi= measurment Xt= true value Relative Error Equation Er = (Xi - Xt)/Xt Xi= measurment Xt= true value What methods can be used to detect error? standard samples, independent analysis,blank detmination, and varying sample size Stadard Samples known concentration Independent Analysis perform analysis using two different methods (gravimetric, volumetric, and spectrographic) Blank Determination run analysis without sample Proportional Error proportional to sample size What are some causes of indeterminate error? position of a meter needle relative to a fixed scale, liquid level in volumetric ware, or electronic noise Precision agreement between two or more measurments/results obtained in an identical fashion What is another name for a Gaussian Curve? normal error curve What detmines the width of the normal error curve? sigma Standard Deviation Equation S= Relative Standard Deviation Equation (RSD) RSD= Coefficient of Variation Equation (CV) CV= Spread or Range numerical difference between the highest and lowest result Confidence limits Equation from Population Standard Deviation CL= Confidence Limits Equation from Sample Standard Deviation CL= How do you detmine if a outlier should be removed from a set of data? calculate Qexperimetal and compare to Qcritical. If Qexperimental is larger remove. Coprecipitation the precipitation of soluble impurities Surface Absorbtion surface contaminates (major problem with collidal precipitates) Occlusion rapid trapping of impurities Mixed Crystal Formation impurity becomes part of the crystalline lattice Mechanical Entrapment trapped impurities when several crystals grow together What are three major problems with the purity of a crystalline precipitate? occlusion, mixed crystal formation, and mechanical entrapment What are some ways to remove impurities? absorption, reprecipitation,and digestion Absorbtion remove by washing with a hot electrolyte solution (watch out for peptization) Reprecipitation re-dissolve and reform precipitate from a cleaner solution Digestion heating over a period of time. Collidial Precipitate large surface area to mass ratio Coagulation of Colloidal Particles attaching particles to each other to improve filtering What are the benifits of digestion? reduces surface charge and consequent double layer, increases particle size via bridging, and particle gain K.E. and overcome electric double layer What are the types of gravimetric analysis? precipitation, and gasification Precipitation Gravimetric Analysis the substance to be determined is isolated by formation of a known precipitate or a precipitate convertible to a known substance Gasification Gravimetric Analysis What are the two types of gasification gravimetric analysis? the analysis involves producing a gas related to a sample Direct Gasification Gravimetric Analysis the determination of the mass of a gas produced by a chemical reaction Indirect Gasification Gravimetric Analysis the determination of the mass lost by a sample as aresult of production of a gas Gravimetric Analysis Mass % Equation Mass%= What are the desired properties of a precipitate? readily filtered and washed of contaminants, low solubility, unreactive with atmospere, known composition What are the physical properties of a colloid? they are smaller and gennerally more impure than crystalline precipitates What affects particle size? the relative supersaturation of the system at the moment, of precipitation Nuclei Formation minimum nuber of ions or molecules forming a second phase If Q is small the particles will be? crystalline If Q is large the particles will be? colloidal If s is small the particles will be? colloidal If s is large the particles will be? crystalline How can you lower the q value? dilute solution, slow rate of mixture, vigorous stirring What does solubility do with temperature increases? generally increases with temerature Mean the average Median the middle value for an odd set of data if arranged numerically Sample Varience standard deviation squared Peptization a coagulated colloid returns to its disperesed state Mixed Crystal Growth a type of coprecipitation in which a contaminat ion replaces an ion in the lattice of a crystal Nucleation process in which a minimum number of atoms, ions, or molecules join together to give a stable solid Counter-Ion Layer a layer of solution surrounding a colloidal particle within which there exists a quantity of ions suffecient to balance the charge on the surface particle Mother Liquor the solution from which a precipitate was formed Supersaturation a condition in which a solution temporarily contails an amount of solute that exceeds its equilibrium solubility Population Standard Deviation Equation = Standard Error of the Mean Equation = Q = wt/wt Equation = vol/vol Equation = wt/vol Equation =