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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
how are anaerobic infections usually manifested and how are they usually treated?
usually form from inoculation in normally sterile site and form an abscess of mixed anaerobe and aerobes. treat by debridement and antibiotics
what antibiotic is good for most anaerobes and has a low incidence of resistance?
important properties of Actinomyces?
gram pos rods, facultative or strictly anaerobic, slow, filamentous morphology looks like fungi
describe the disease caused by actinomyces/
hard swelling or draining with some pain, yellow sulpher like exudate.
epidemiology of actinomyces?
no known environmental source, no person to person, endogenous, poor hygeine and immunocompromised get it
actinomyces like to make biofilms on what?
treatment for actinomyces?
surgical debridement and prolonged antibiotic therapy, use penicillin, Resistant to metronidazole
basic properties of bacteroides?
gram neg rod, likes bile, pleomorophic, sorta nontoxic LPS, possible capsule, eats plants
epidemiology of bacteroides?
some species are good gut commensals, B fragilis is minor component of gut but often seen with disease usually after surg/trauma so it gets to where it is not supposed to be
virulence factors of bacteroides?
adhesins (capsule and fimbrae), enterotoxins (metalloprotease) and cytotoxic enzymes, capsule that is antiphagocytic and induces abscess formation, catalase and super oxide dismutase to resist oxygen toxicity
diseases caused by bacteroides?
usually polymicrobial. intraab infections: intestinal abscess and obstruction, lysis can lead to bacteremia; skin infections, bacteremia, gastroenteritis (watery diarrhea), gyn infections (usually abscesses)
diagnosis of bacteroides?
pleomorphic rods on gram stain, culture, grow on bile media,
treatment for bacteroides?
penicillin resistant, metroindazole, carbapenems, B lactams with lactamase inhibitors, surgical debridement
basic properties of fusobacterium?
pleomorphic gram neg rods, colonizes GI and GU tracts, pathogen if in throat, make butyric and proprionic acid
disease caused by fusobacs?
lemierre's syndrome, bacs in carotid sheath, fever, jugular thrombophlebitis, can cause septic emboli to lung, affects healthy teens, begins with sore throat, pain/swelling at jaw. other diseases include sinusitis, brain abscess, necrotizing pneumonia, intrab infection, septic arthritis
what are the virulence factors of F. nucleatum? F. necrophorum?
leukotoxin, hemolysin, LPS, phospholipase, protease. LPS, adhesisns, proteases, leukotoxins
what bacs are responsible for acne and what is their morphology?
propionibacterium, small gram pos rods usually in chains
disease process of acne?
neutros come to propionobacs, phagocytoze them, more bac stuff is released and more neutros come, thus it is mainly an inflammatory response
treatment for propionibacs?
erythro or clindamycin if serious acne, try benzoyl peroxides
key points about provetella?
gram neg bacilli, members of oral flora, periodontitis
key points of peptostreptococcus?
gram pos coccus, mucosa and skin, fastidious growth, penicillin, vanc etc