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163 Cards in this Set

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What is the origin of Longus Capitis?
Ant Tubercles of TP's C3-6
What is the insertion of Longus Capitis?
Basilar Portion of Occipital Bone
What is the action of Longus Capitis?
Flex Neck and Head
What is the innervation of Longus Capitis?
VPR C1-3
What is the origin of Rectus Capitis Anterior?
Anterior aspect of Lateral Mass of Atlas
What is the insertion of Rectus Capitis Anterior?
Occiput: Anterior to Occipital Condyles
What is the action of Rectus Capitis Anterior?
Flex A-O joints; a little lateral flexion
What is the innervation of Rectus Capitis Anterior?
VPR C1-2
What is the origin of Rectus Capitis Lateralis?
Anterior aspect of TP of C1
What is the insertion of Rectus Capitis Lateralis?
Jugular Process of Occiput
What is the action of Rectus Capitis Lateralis?
Lateral flexion of A-O joints
What is the innervation of Rectus Capitis Lateralis?
VPR C1-2
What is the origin of Longus Colli (inferior)?
Anterior aspect of Vertebral bodies of T1-3
What is the insertion of Longus Colli (inferior)?
Anterior Tubercles of TP's of C5-6
What is the action of Longus Colli (inferior)?
Flex neck; Ipsilateral flexion of neck, and contralateral rotation
What is the innervation of Longus Colli (inferior)?
VPR of lower Cervical Nerves
What is the origin of Longus Colli (vertical)?
Anterior aspect of Vertebral bodies C5-T3
What is the insertion of Longus Colli (vertical)?
Anterior aspect of Vertebral bodies C2-4
What is the action of Longus Colli (vertical)?
Flexion of neck
What is the innervation of Longus Colli (vertical)?
VPR C2-6
What is the origin of Longus Colli (superior)?
Anterior tubercles of TP's of C3-5
What is the insertion of Longus Colli (superior)?
Anterior tubercle of C1
What is the action of Longus Colli (superior)?
Neck flexion; lateral neck flexion to same side
What is the innervation of Longus Colli (superior)?
VPR of Upper Cervical nerves
What is the origin of the Anterior Scalenes?
Anterior tubercles of C3-6 TP's
What is the insertion of Anterior Scalenes?
Scalene tubercle of 1st rib (anterior)
What is the action of the Anterior Scalenes?
Neck flexion; same side lateral flexion; opposite rotation; elevate 1st rib
What is the innervation of the Anterior Scalenes?
VPR C4-6
What is the origin of the Middle Scalenes?
TP's of C1-2, Posterior tubercles of TP's of C3-7
What is the insertion of the Middle Scalenes?
Posterior to anterior scalene
What is the action of the Middle Scalenes?
Neck flexion; same side lateral flexion; opposite rotation; elevate 1st rib
What is the innervation of the Middle Scalenes?
VPR C3-8
What passes between the the Anterior and Middle Scalenes?
Subclavian and Roots of the Brachial Plexus
What is thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS)?
Describes the symptoms and signs arising from the compromise of neural or vascular structures as they pass through the region of the thoracic inlet.
What is Scalenus Anticus Syndrome?
Compression of the cervical outlet which houses C5-6, and usually C7 cervical nerve roots.
What is the pectoralis minor space?
The region bounded superiorly by the pectoralis minor muscle and coracod process to which it inserts, as well as the thoracic cage inferiorly.
What syndrome affects the pectoralis minor tendon?
The term hyperabduction syndrome has been used to identify compression of the axillary artery and the cords of the brachial plexus against the pectoralis minor tendon during prolonged abduction of the upper extremity.
How does a cervical rib cause TOS?
The presence of a cervical rib can cause a form of thoracic outlet syndrome due to compression of the lower trunk of the brachial plexus or subclavian artery. These structures are entrapped between the cervical rib and scalenus muscle.
What is the difference between Vascular TOS and Neurolgic TOS?
Vascular refers to the syndrome affecting of the arteries and veins that run along the brachial plexus; Neurolgic refers simply to syndrome affecting the Brachial Plexus.
What is the origin of the Posterior Scalenes?
Posterior tubercles of the TP's of C4-6
What is the insertion of the Posterior Scalenes?
Lateral aspect of the 2nd rib
What is the action of the Posterior Scalenes?
Ipsilateral neck flexion; elevate the 2nd rib
What is the innervation of the Posterior Scalenes?
VPR C6-8
What is the origin of Psoas Major?
Anterolateral bodies T12-L5; IVD's and TP's L1-5
What is the insertion of the Psoas Major?
Lesser trochanter of femur
What is the action of the Psoas Major?
Major hip flexor if spine is stable; trunk flexion and tips pelvis anteriorly if hips are fixed
What is the innervation of the Psoas Major?
VPR L2-3
What is the origin of the Psoas Minor (if present)?
Bodies of T12-L1 and IVD
What is insertion of the Psoas Minor (if present)?
Pecten pubis iliopubic eminence
What is the action of the Psoas Minor (if present)?
Assist Psoas Major with trunk flexion
What is the innervation of the Psoas Minor (if present)?
VPR L1
What is the origin of Iliacus?
Medial lip of iliac crest, iliac fossa, superiorlateral sacrum
What is the insertion of Iliacus?
Lesser trochanter of the femur
What is the action of Iliacus?
Major hip flexor if spine is stable; Trunk flexion and tips pelvis anteriorly if hips are fixed
What is the innervation of Iliacus?
Femoral Nerve; L2-3
What is the origin of Quadratus Lumborum?
TP's L5, iliolumbar ligament; posterior iliac crest
What is the insertion of Quadratus Lumborum?
Lower border of 12 rib, TP's L1-4
What is the bilateral action of Quadratus Lumborum?
Extend spine; depress 12th rib; stabilize diaphragm to 12th rib
What is the unilateral action of Quadratus Lumborum?
Laterally flex spine
What is the innervation of Quadratus Lumborum?
VPR T12-L3
What forms the brachial plexus?
VPR of C5-T1
What are the VPR's of the brachial plexus called?
Roots
What do the roots of the brachial plexus form?
Superior, middle, and inferior trunks
What do the trunks of the brachial plexus form?
Anterior and Posterior divisions
How many Divisions of the brachial plexus are there?
6 total
What do the Divisions of the brachial plexus form?
Medial, lateral and Posterior cords
What do the Cords of the brachial plexus end as?
Terminal Branches
What are the four Terminal Branches of the brachial plexus?
Musculocutaneous, Median, Ulnar, and Radial
What do the VPR of C5-6 of the brachial plexus form?
Upper Trunk
What does the VPR of C7 form in the brachial plexus?
The Middle Trunk
What Cord does the Middle Trunk directly lead to in the brachial plexus?
Posterior Cord
What does the VPR of C8 and T1 of the brachial plexus form?
Lower Trunk
What is the 1st nerve formed before the Superior Trunk is formed in the brachial plexus?
Dorsal Scapular Nerve.
What does the Dorsal Scapular Nerve innervate?
Rhomboid major and minor; Levator Scapulae
What forms the Long Thoracic Nerve before the Trunks are formed in the brachial plexus?
VPR's C5-7
What muscle is supplied by the Long Thoracic Nerve?
Serratus Anterior
What innervates the Supraspinatus and Infraspinatus muscles?
Suprascapular Nerve
What does the Suprascapular Nerve arise from in the brachial plexus?
Upper (Superior) Trunk C5-6
What unites to form the Lateral Cord in the brachial plexus?
Anterior Divisions of the Upper (Superior) and Middle Trunks
What remains alone to form the Medial Cord in the brachial plexus?
Anterior Division of the Lower Trunk
What unites to form the Posterior Cord in the brachial plexus?
All the Posterior Divisions
What are the Cords named after in the brachial plexus?
The Anatomic Relationship to the Axillary Artery
What do the branches of the Lateral Cord include in the brachial plexus?
Lateral Pectoral Nerve (C5-7 to Pec Minor and Major)
What does the Medial Cord provide in the brachial plexus?
The Medial Pectoral Nerve (C8-T1 piercing the Pec Minor with some fibers entering the Pec Major), Medial Antebrachial Cutaneous (C8, T1), Medial Brachial Cutaneous (C8, T1)
What also arises from the Medial Cord in the brachial plexus?
The Ulnar Nerve (C7-T1) and a portion to the Median Nerve (C5-T1)
What does the Ulnar nerve innervate?
One and a half muscles of the anterior forearm, the majority of hand intrinsics, and sensory to the medial distal forearm and medial hand (medial palm, 5th digit, ulnar side of 4th digit)
What muscle is an example of innervation by the Ulnar Nerve?
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
What forms the Median nerve?
The Lateral and Medial cords.
What is the motor function of the Median Nerve?
Provides motor to the majority of muscles of the anterior forearm, 3 thenar muscles, and first 2 lumbricals.
What is the sensory function of the Median nerve?
Provides sensory to the lateral aspect of the palm, anterior first three and a half digits, and the distal aspects of the posterior aspects of the first three and a half digits.
What extrinsic muscle is an example of Median nerve innervation?
Flexor digitorum profundus
What is the mnemonic for the Posterior Cord?
ULTRA: Upper Subscapular, Lower Subscapular, Thoracodorsal, Radial, and Axillary.
What muscle is innervated by the Upper Subscapular nerve?
C5-6 to Subscapularis
What two muscles are innervated by the Lower Subscapular nerve?
C5-6 to Teres Major, and Subscapularis
What muscle is innervated by the Thoracodorsal nerve?
C6-8 to Latissimus Dorsi
What motor and sensory innervation is provided by the Radial nerve?
C5-T1 for motor and sensory to the posterior arm and forearm, lateral aspect of dorsum of hand, and the dorsal aspect of the first three and half digits
What muscle in the posterior arm is innervated by the Radial nerve?
Triceps brachii
What 2 muscle groups does the Radial nerve innervate in the forearm and wrist?
Extensors and supinators
What motor innervation does the Axillary nerve provide?
C5-6 to Teres Minor, and Deltoids
What sensory innervation does the Axillary nerve provide?
C5-6 to upper lateral arm
What nerve innervates most of the intrinsic muscles of the hand?
Ulnar Nerve
What intrinsic muscles does the Ulnar nerve NOT innervate?
LOAF: Lumbericals (lateral 2), Oponens pollicis, Abductor pollicis brevis, Flexor pollicis brevis
What nerve innervates LOAF?
Median Nerve
What is GSA?
General Somatic Afferent
What is GSE?
General Somatic Efferent
What forms the Cervical Plexus?
VPR of C1-4 (C5)
What is the relationship between the Sensory branches of the Cervical Plexus and the SCM?
Superficially deep to the SCM and course around the SCM.
What are the Sensory Branches of the Cervical Plexus when they emerge from the medial-posterior surface of the SCM?
Lesser Occipital Nerve (C2); Greater Auricular Nerve (C2-3); Transverse Cervical (C2-3); Supraclavicular (C3-4)
What does the Lesser Occipital nerve (C2) innervate?
Mastoid region and superior aspect of ear
What does the Greater Auricular Nerve (C2-3) innervate?
Ear and region over Gonion
What does the Transverse Cervical (C2-3) innervate?
Anterior neck
What does the Supraclavicular (C3-4) innervate?
skin over clavicle and deltoid muscles
What is another name for the previous 4 sensory branch nerves of the Cervical Plexus?
Herb's Point
Where are the Motor branches of the Cervical Plexus found?
Deeper and within the Anterior Triangle of the neck
What motor innervation does C1 provide?
Provides the Superior Root of the Ansa Cervacalis
What is another name for the Superior Root?
Descendens Hypoglossi
What motor innervation does C2-3 provide?
Branches to the Inferior Root of the Ansa Cervicalis
What is another name for Inferior Root?
Descendens Cervicalis
What muscles does the VPR of C1 supply?
Thyrohyoid and Geniohyoid muscles
What muscle group do the branches of the Ansa Cervicalis supply?
Infrahyoid Muscles
What is another name for the infrahyoid muscles?
Strap Muscles
What composes the Infrahyoid muscles?
Superior and Inferior bellies of the Omohyoid; Sternohyoid, and Sternothyroid
What is the function of the Phrenic Nerve (C3-5)?
Provides motor and sensory to the Diaphragm.
What muscle does the Phrenic nerve lie in the neck?
Anterior Scalene
What is the mnemonic for the Phrenic nerve?
C345 keeps the diaphragm alive
What is the Subcostal nerve?
Ventral Ramus of T12, crosses the anterior surfaces the Quadratus Lumborum, and branches to L1 spinal nerve.
What does the Subcoastal nerve innervate?
Supplies the external and internal obliques, Transverse abdominus, and the skin superior to iliac crest
What also crosses the Quadratus Lumborum anteriorly?
Iliohypogastric nerve (T12-L1); Ilioinguinal nerve (L1)
What does the Iliohypogastric nerve supply?
Innervates Transverse Abdominus, IO, skin of hypogastric region
What muscle is the Ilioinguinal nerve deep to?
Psoas Major
What nerve is the Ilioinguinal nerve inferior to?
Iliohypogastric nerve
What does the Ilioinguinal nerve innervate?
Supplies IO, Transverse Abdominus, skin over genitalia (labia majora/scrotum), and proximal thigh.
What nerve pierces psoas major at approximately L3-4 level?
Genitofemoral nerve (L1-L2)
What does the genital branch of the Genitofemoral nerve innervate?
Cremaster muscle and skin of scrotum/labia majora
What does the femoral branch of the Genitofemoral nerve innervate?
Runs along external iliaca to skin of proximal thigh
What muscle does the Lateral Femoral cutaneous nerve cross?
Crosses iliacus muscle (inferolateral)
What ligament does the Lateral Femoral cutaneous nerve pass under?
Under inguinal ligament (medial to ASIS)
What nerve is only present in about 10% of the population?
Accessory Obturator nerve
If present, where would the Accessory Obturator nerve be found?
Medial to psoas
What nerve is also medial to psoas?
Obturator nerve [L2-4 (V)]
What foramen does the Obturator nerve pass through on it's way to the thigh?
Obturator Foramen
What does the Obturator nerve innervate?
Supplies muscles of the medial thigh (adductors): Gracilis, Adductor Longus and Brevis
What is the largest branch of the Lumbar Plexus?
Femoral Nerve [L2-4 (D)]
Where is the Femoral nerve located?
Lateral to psoas (between psoas and iliacus), and under the inguinal ligament
What does the Femoral Nerve innervate?
Supplies quadriceps femoris, sartorius; sensory to skin of anterior thigh
What connects the Lumbar plexus to the Sacral plexus?
Lumbosacral Trunk (L4-5)
Where is the Lumbosacral Trunk (L4-5) located?
Medial to psoas (most medial structure)
How does the Lumbosacral Trunk (L4-5) connect the Lumbar and Sacral Plexuses?
Crosses ala (wing) of sacrum, descends into pelvis and participates in formation of the Sacral plexus with VPR of S1-4
What is lateral to the Psoas?
Iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, Lateral Femoral Cutaneous, and Femoral nerves.
What is anterior to the Psoas?
Genitofemoral ->pierces psoas and lies on it
What is Medial to the Psoas?
Lumbosacral Trunk, Obturator, iliolumbar artery, and accessory obturator (if present).
Where is the Sacral Plexus located?
Lies primarily on the internal surface of the Piriformis muscle, and converge caudally toward the GSF (greater sciatic foramen) exiting the GSF above or below the Piriformis.
Where is the Superior Gluteal nerve found?
Exiting GSF above the Piriformis, L5-S1
What does the Superior Gluteal nerve innervate?
Supplies glute medius and minimus; tensor fascia lata
Where is the Inferior Gluteal nerve (L5-S2) found?
Exiting below Piriformis.
What does the Inferior Gluteal nerve innervate?
Supplies gluteus maximus.
Where is the Sciatic nerve found?
L4-S3; Below the piriformis, occasionally piercing or splitting it.
Where does the Sciatic nerve travel?
Enters posterior thigh between greater trochanter of femur and ischial tuberosity
What does the Sciatic nerve diverge into at the popliteal fossa?
Common Peroneal (Fibular) and Tibial nerves.
Where is the nerve to the Obturator internus found?
L5-S2 below piriformis; re-enters pelvis via lesser sciatic foramen (LSF) after exiting through the GSF.
What does the nerve to the Obturator internus innervate?
Supplies the Superior Genellus, Obturator Internus muscles.
Where is the nerve to the quadratus femoris found?
L5-S1 below piriformis
What does the nerve to the quadratus femoris innervate?
Supplies the Inferior Genellus, and Quadratus Femoris muscles.