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54 Cards in this Set

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Descent
-The way you trace ancestry
-Socially recognized ties of ancestry betwen a person and his or her ancestor
-Culturally organized so it varies
How many categories of Descent are there?
2 broad categories
-UNILINEAL:Patrilinel-form of ancestry that traces descent thru the father;Matrilineal-form of ancestry that traces descent thru mother
-COGNATIC: traces descent thru both males and females and not in a single lineal way
Hunter-gatherers traced ancestry thru ...
cognatic
modern european ways not always unilineal because...
less need to develop clear line to pass down if moving around with only conjugal family
agriculture caused
people to become more violent, more obsessed with land control
After Roman Empire
cognatic replaces unilineal
China represents what form of descent
Cognatic
Matriarchy
type of political system in which most power is in the hands of women
sex is determined
biologically
Gender is determined
by culturally and socially transmitted norms
4 traits of Convergent structure of GENDER across culture
1. Gender is socially constructed/defined/approved
2. all societies build gender around a bienary category
3. in addition to 2 categories, some cultures have 3rd category
4. marriage is universal, but how it applies varies
In societies with two dominent gender categories where defined oppositional, there is a tendency to define mascoulinity in terms of
competitive tested achievement
strong emphasis on fem. in terms of ... and ... that defines them as women
body / reproduction
achievement demensions in womens roles
having a baby
emphasis on ... and ... is a critical resource in how ppl rank themselve
female/ female honor and virtue
modern times and gender
4 points...
1. gender in a symmetric direction
2. public achievement is less gender marked
3. testosterone gives edgy competitive advantage for professions that males historically had advantage over
4. allocate warfare function to smaller group and therefore let other men who aren't warriors pursue other professions
economy
is a system that organizes the ownership, production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services within society.
Gary Becker said that
economy extends to family unit and to goods and services
good
material entity with a perceived value/ benefit
services
have a perceived benefit
goods and services
reguarded as valuable
-perception of use drives economy
Kula in the Tribrolands
traded red shell necklaces, and whiteshell armbands
-utility benefit, complex system of trade based on balanced reciprocity
mystery of economy:
different societies create profoundly different uses, benefits, and needs.
All economies are embedded:
system is not just determined by marketplace but by array of institutions in society.
Chinese Capitalism is premised on
family trust rather than law
Chinese capitalism is historically
layer-less
-layers will insult other partner; shows distrust
-rely on personalized trust and social networks
Xinong Guanxi
where business is conducted;honor based network
Western Capitalism
strong emphasis on state-back law to enforce contract
-tday contract must be negotiated by business partners and lawyers
Property rights/owernship
refer to socially recognized rules of assigning inclusion and exclusion with regards to who is allowed in
Bridget Bordeiux
against animal cruelty; was anti-Muslim- believed their method of slaughter is cruel because they slit the throat.
all societies have
multiple and complex systems of property rights
Dutch
pro-choice when comes to body; allow prostitution, euthanasia, abortion
no system is
absolutely private or social
all societies
one type of property tends to dominate depending on how the society focuses on moral and social status.
production
transformation of human labor and resources into useful goods and resources
way production is organized is based
on level of technology in that society
In every society, most important line of divisions is
GENDER= major criterior to determine where tasks are assigned
division of labor
ex) Foragers-
tendency for woman to be roughly equal to men
-division of labor reinforced gender equity
Inuit/Eskimo
hunter/gatherer/forager society massively dependent on hunting, introduces a resemblance of gender imbalance even if woman is the person cookin, man is hunting
spike in ... equality starts with ... also results in a spike in ...
spike in (gender) equality starts with (agriculture) also results in a spike in (populations)
Distribution
pumps goods and services through society; in all societies there are multiple systems of distribution but usually only one prevails
market exchange
distribution mediated by simple supply and demand; social identity blind
Social Reciprocity
Exchange by two partners in which goods and services are exchanged on the basis of an enduring social relation
-hidden economy without which the market economy could not work
Redistribution
transfer of goods from several sources to one central authority for later reallocation from the authorityl implies presences of inequality within society
consumption
movement in economic process in which goods and services are used
material bias
assumption that people are driven to consume primary material needs
people work MORE as society becomes more
modern and affluent
Foragers work ... hours per day
3-5
-have an affluence of time
Industrial societies work ... hours per day
9-11
the most distinctive human trait is
the brain
Bands
small group of related people occupying a common territory and possessing an informal and rudimentary form of gov't?
bands had ... # of ppl
100-500
Band coordination
weak
people lived in ... societies the longest
band