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60 Cards in this Set

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SCHIZOPHRENIA DEFINITIONS

Schizophrenia was initally called dementia praecox by who and in what year?
KRAEPLIN
1896
SCHIZOPHRENIA DEFINITIONS

Who coined the phrase "schizophrenia" and in what year?
BLUELER
1911
SCHIZOPHRENIA DEFINITIONS

What does schizophrenia literally mean?
SPLIT MIND
SCHIZOPHRENIA DEFINITIONS

Who claimed that schizophrenia tended to appear in childhood and included dementia as a symptom?
KRAEPLIN
1913
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Who devised the 'first rank symptoms" of schizophrenia and in what year?
SCHNEIDER
1959
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

What are Schneider's 4 first rank symptoms of schizophrenia
1. AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS
2. THOUGHT DISTURBANCES
3. PASSIVITY EXPERIENCES
4. PRIMARY DELUSIONS
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Name two types of auditory hallucinations?
1. Perception of stimuli not actually present ie. hearing things
2. Distortion of real noise
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Name three types of thought disturbances
1. Thought withdrawal
2. Thought broadcasting
3. Thought insertion
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Name four types of Passivity Experiences
1. Somatic Passivity
2. Made Feelings
3. Made Impulses
4. Made Acts
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Name four types of delusions
1. Grandeur
2. Persecution
3. Reference
4. Nihilism
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

What two other types of hallucinations (other than auditory) are often experienced by Schizophrenics?
Visual hallucinations - seeing things
Somatosensory Hallucinations - feelings things in the body
Depersonalisation - Feeling a separation of body from "self"
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

What is meant by 'thought withdrawal'?
The belief that thoughts are being withdrawn by external agencies
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

What is meant by thought insertion?
The belief that thoughts are being inserted by external agencies
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

What is meant by thought broadcasting?
The belief that thoughts are being broadcast to others
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

What is 'somatic passivity'?
The patient passively receives influences on, or about, body
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

What are 'Made Feelings'?
The individual experiences feelings that seem to contradict their own cognition ie. hunger, thirst, anger etc.
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

What are 'Made Impulses'?
the patient has an awareness of actions produced by part of self that are contradictory to their own wishes or thoughts
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

What are 'Made Acts'?
The whole of the patients being is controlled by an external force - rather like an automaton
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Give an example of a delusion of Grandeur
I am God!
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

What is meant by a delusion of persecution?
The patient believes that everyone is out to get them.
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

What is a delusion of Reference?
The patient believes that he is being referred to all the time eg. the news reader is speaking to and about him
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

What is a delusion of nihilism?
Nothing is real, the world is separate and far away from the patient. Cannot be convinced they are part of the world
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

What is the Capgras Syndrome?
A delusion in which one believes family members to be imposters (often seen in dementia and Alzheimer's)
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Who devised 4 additional symptoms of Schizophrenia and in what year?
SLATER & ROTH
1969
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Name Slater & Roth's 4 additional symptoms of Schizophrenia
1. Thought Process Disorder
2. Disturbances of Affect (emotional disturbances)
3. Pyschomotor Disturbances
4. Lack of Volition
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
thought process disorders(Slater & Roth 1969) are defined as what?
No attentional focus
Sensory Overload
Going off on tangents
Incoherent speech including neologisms - word salad
Taking everything literally
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

What are the three types of Disturbances of Affect?
1. Blunted Affect - impassive response to emotional situations
2. Flattened Affect - same as blunted but applicable to everything
3. Inappropriate Affect - giggling at bad news, getting angry at a gift
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Name 5 types of Catatonic Behaviour (Psychomotor Disorders)
1. Catatonic Stupor
2. Catatonic Excitement
3. Automatic Obedience
4. Waxy Flexibility
5. Stereotypy
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

What is meant by 'Lack of Volition'?
Withdrawal and loss of interest in life, friends and environment
TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Name the four main types of Schizophrenia
1.SIMPLE
2. HEBEPHRENIC
3. CATATONIC
4. PARANOID
TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Describe the characteristics of Simple Schizophrenia
Individual is -
Aimless
Lacks drive
Difficulty making friends
TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Describe the characteristics of Hebephrenic Schizophrenia
Most severe
incoherent language
delusions
vivid hallucinations
flattened affect
extreme withdrawal
TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Describe the symptoms of Paranoid Schizophrenia
Language and behaviour can appear normal
Delusional thoughts
Hallucinations
Paranoia
TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Name two other types of Schizophrenia
UNDIFFERENTIATED

SCHIZOPHRENIC PSYCHOSIS - short lived schizophrenic episode
TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Describe the symptoms of Catatonic Schizophrenia
Impairment of motor activity
Mutism
Bouts of wild frenzied action
Stupor
DEVELOPMENT OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Name the three stages of Schizophrenia
1. PRODOMAL
2. ACTIVE
3. RESIDUAL
DEVELOPMENT OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

What are the symptoms displayed in the Prodomal Phase of schizophrenia? And when is it most likely to occur?
Lessening of drive
Flattening of emotions

EARLY ADOLESCENCE
DEVELOPMENT OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

What are the symptoms noticed in the Active Phase of schizophrenia?
All the main symptoms of schizophrenia
Can last months or a lifetime depending on the severity of the condition in the individual
DEVELOPMENT OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

What are the symptoms notices in the Residual Phase of schizophrenia? When does it occur?
A return to the symptoms of the Prodomal Phase, lessening of major symptoms.

Residual = Schizophrenia in remission
DEVELOPMENT OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

What percentage of schizophreics return to normal behaviour?
25%
DEVELOPMENT OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

What percentage of schizophrenics remain in the active phase throughout their lives?
10%
DEVELOPMENT OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

What percentage of schizophrenics alternate between the Residual and Active phases?
50 - 65%
EXPLANATIONS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Which perspective and form of conditioning are thought to cause schizophrenia by rewarding schizophrenic behaviour with attention? Why is this perspective questioned?
BEHAVIOURIST PERSPECTIVE

Operant Conditioning

Is thought to maintain schizophrenic symptoms rather than cause them
EXPLANATIONS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Which psychological approach suggest that schizophrenia results from problems with the Ego and an overwhelment pf the Superego or Id?
PSYCHODYNAMIC
EXPLANATIONS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Who suggests that thought disturbances, perception, attention and faulty information processing cause the symptoms of schizophrenia rather than being the symptoms of schizophrenia?
MAHER
1968
EXPLANATIONS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Who suggests that 'double-binds' and contradictory behaviour plus parental marital problems cause schizophrenia?
BATESON ET AL
1956
EXPLANATIONS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Who proposed that interfering with a child's language development played a part in the development of schizophrenia?
WYNNE ET AL
1977
EXPLANATIONS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

According to the Biological perspective of Schizophrenia what percentages of people are likely to develop the symptoms through genetic heredity?
NO PARENTS ARE SCHIZOPHRENIC - 1%
1 PARENT IS SCHIZOPHRENIC - 20%
BOTH PARENTS ARE SCHIZOPHRENIC - 40-50%
EXPLANATIONS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Whose research found a 42% concordance of MZ twins with schizophrenia?
GOTTESMAN & SHIELDS
between 1948 & 1964
London hospital researching 45,000 people
EXPLANATIONS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Which three psychologists found evidence to support the proposition that schizophrenia was genetically inherited?
KETY ET AL - 1968
HESTON - 1966
ROSENTHAL ET AL - 1971
EXPLANATIONS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Which chromosome is under supsicion as being the cause of a predisopostion for schizophrenia?
CHROMOSOME 15
EXPLANATIONS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Who found naturally occuring hallucinogens in the cerebro-spinal fluid of schizophrenics?
SMYTHIES
1976
EXPLANATIONS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Who found Dimethyltryptamine DMT in the urine samples of schizophrenics?
MURRAY ET AL
1979
EXPLANATIONS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Who found higher than normal levels of Dopamine in the Limbic Systems of schizophrenics?`
IVERSEN
1979
EXPLANATIONS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Whose research pointed to the role of over active dopamine receptor sites in schizophrenics? (2 names and dates)
DAVIS - 1974

KIMBLE - 1988
EXPLANATIONS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Which two neurotransmitters have also been implicated in the development of schizophrenia?
SERATONIN

GLUTAMATE
EXPLANATIONS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Which structures in the brain did GERSHON & REIDER (1992) find abnormal in schizophrenics and how did they differ?
LATERAL CEREBRAL VENTRICLES - enlarged
TEMPORAL LOBE - less brain tissue
HIIPOCAMPI - smaller
LIMBIC SYSTEMS - smaller
EXPLANATIONS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Who discovered unusually small 'corpus collossums' and unusual distributions of grey and white matter in the brains of schizophrenics?
AMBRUS ET AL
1999
EXPLANATIONS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Who discovered that the thalami of schizophrenics are oddly shaped?
MIN ET AL
1999
EXPLANATIONS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Which other two abnormal brain structures/functions are associated with schizophrenia?
REDUCED BLOOD FLOW IN FRONTAL CORTEX

ABNORMAL NEURONAL CONNECTIONS