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119 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the components of a synovial joint?
Joint capsule, synovial fluid, joint cavity, articular cartilage
What are the functions of superficial fascia?
Stores water & fat, heat insulator, mechanical protection, acts as a pathway for nerves & blood vessels supplying the skin
What are the functions of deep fascia?
Wrap around muscles for strength & coordination, attach muscles to bone, acts as a pathway for nerves & blood vessels supplying the muscles
What is the difference between postural and phasic muscles?
Postural: short lived activities, fast twitch fibers

Phasic: prolonged activities, slow twitch fibers
What is the definition of muscle tone?
By recruitment of the CNS, some muscle fibers completely contract within a larger group of muscle fibers
What is the medical term for shoulder joint?
Glenohumeral joint
What is the medical term for the elbow?
Humeroulnar joint
What is the medical term for the forearm?
Proximal radioulnar joint
What is the medical term for the wrist?
Radiocarpal joint
What is the medical term for the knuckles?
Metacarpophalangeal joint
What is the medical term for fingers?
Interphalangeal joints
What is the definition of oxygen debt?
The difference between the amount of oxygen needed for totally aerobic respiration during muscle activity & the amount that is actually used.
What is twitch?
A quick, jerky response to a single stimulus
What is tetany?
A sustained contraction produced by a series of stimuli bombarding the muscle in rapid succession
What is the most commonly injured rotator cuff muscle?
Supraspinatus
What is the activity of shooting a basketball?
Flexion
What are the actions of throwing a baseball?
Windup: lateral rotation
Release: medial rotation
Which muscles create pure protraction?
Pectoralis minor & serratus anterior
How much ATP is stored?
4-6 seconds worth
Which muscles are innervated by the radial nerve?
Triceps, anconeus, brachioradialis, supinator, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, extensor indicis, extensor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis longus
Which muscles form the anatomical snuff box?
Extensor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis longus
What is inside the anatomical snuffbox?
Radial artery
Which muscles are supplied by the axillary nerve?
Teres minor, deltoids
Which spinal nerves form the brachial plexus?
C5-C8 & T1 ventral rami
Carpal tunnel syndrome will affect which eminence?
Thenar eminence
Cubital tunnel syndrome will affect which eminence?
Hypothenar eminence
What is the thick myofilament called?
Myosin
What is the thin myofilament called?
Actin
What is a synarthrodial joint?
Immovable
Examples of synarthrodial joints?
Cranial sutures, gomphosis
What is an amphiarthrodial joint?
Slightly movable
What is a syndesmosis?
A joint held together by ligaments
What is an example of a syndesmosis?
Distal tibiofibular joint
What is a symphysis?
A joint separated by a fibrocartilage pad
What are examples of a symphysis?
Intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis
What is a synchondrosis?
A joint separated by a hyaline cartilage pad
What is an example of a synchondrosis?
Where the ribs attach to the sternum
What is a diarthrodial joint?
Freely movable
What joint only allows gliding movement?
Arthordial/gliding/plane/planar

ex: carpals
What joint allows flexion, extension, abduction & adduction?
Condyloidal/ellipsoid/ovoid

ex: wrist
What joint allows flexion and extension?
Ginglymus/hinge

ex: elbow
What joint allows flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, lateral rotation & medial rotation?
Enarthrodial/ball & socket

ex: shoulder
What joint allows medial & lateral rotation?
Trochoidal/pivot/screw

ex: forearm joint
What joint allows flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, opposition?
Sellar/saddle joint

ex: thumb
What are the carpal bones?
Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
What does the axial skeleton consist of?
Head, spine, ribs, sternum, sacrum, hyoid bone, coccyx
What does the appendicular skeleton consist of?
Scapula, clavicle, humerus, ulna, phalanges, radius, carpals, metacarpals, pelvis, femur, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
How many bones are in the upper extremity?
64
What protein covers the myosin binding sites on actin?
Tropomyosin
What is the sarcolemma compared to in a cell?
Cell membrane
What does the sarcoplasmic reticulum store?
Calcium
What is a muscle contraction that produces tension in a muscle without movement?
Isometric
What is a muscle contraction in which tension remains constant as muscle shortens or lengthens?
Isotonic
What is a contraction in which musle shortens, overcoming resistence?
Concentric
What is a contraction in which a muscle lengthens, yielding to resistance?
Eccentric
What is the difference between parallel & pennate?
Parallel: less fibers, greater ROM, less power

Pennate: more fibers, less ROM, greater power
What is the difference between aerobic & anaerobic respiration?
Aerobic: With oxygen, slower

Anaerobic: Without oxygen, faster
What are the bones of the shoulder girdle?
Scapula, clavicle
What is the only energy source for contractile activities?
ATP
What is the formula for burning creatine phosphate into energy?
CP + ADP -> C + ATP
What is the formula for aerobic respiration?
O2 + glucose -> CO2 +H2O +36ATP
Which muscle is innervated by the long thoracic nerve?
Serratus anterior
Where does movement of the scapula take place?
Sternoclavicular joint
Which muscle is the bridge over the brachial plexus?
Pectoralis minor
What is the origin of trapezius?
External occipital protuberance, ligamentum nuchae, C7-T12 spinous processes
What is the insertion of trapezius?
Upper: Lateral third of clavicle & acromion
Middle: Spine of scapula
Lower: Root of spine of scapula
What are the actions of trapezius?
Upper: Elevation, upward rotation
Middle: Retraction
Lower: Depression, upward rotation
What are the joints of the shoulder complex?
Sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, scapulothoracic, glenohumeral
What is a fast twitch fiber?
White, poor blood supply, contract rapidly, fatigue easily, rely on anaerobic pathways, lots of power
What is a slow twitch fiber?
Red, rich blood supply, contract slowly, fatigue resistant, not much power, relies on aerobic pathways
What attaches to the supraglenoid tubercle?
Long head of biceps
Which muscles make up the walls of the axilla?
Anterior: pectoralis major
Posterior: Latissimus dorsi, teres major
Which muscles attach to the bicipital groove?
Latissimus dorsi, teres major, pectoralis major
What are the actions of biceps?
Flexion, supination
What attaches to the infraglenoid tubercle?
Long head of triceps
Which muscles attach to the coracoid process?
Pectoralis minor, coracobrachialis, short head of biceps
Which muscles attach to the greater tubercle?
Supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor
Which muscle attaches to the lesser tubercle?
Subscapularis
What attaches to the deltoid tuberosity?
Deltoids
What is the origin of biceps?
Short head: coracoid process
Long head: supraglenoid tubercle
What is the insertion of biceps?
Radial tuberosity
What is the action of biceps?
Flexion, supination
What is the origin of triceps?
Long head: infraglenoid tubercle
Lateral head: above spiral groove
Medial head: below spiral groove
What is the insertion of triceps?
Olecranon process of the elbow
What is the action of triceps?
Extension
Which muscles do abduction at the shoulder joint?
Supraspinatus, deltoids
Where is the greater tubercle on the humerus?
Most lateral
What muscles are supplied by the musculocutaneous nerve?
Coracobrachialis, biceps, brachialis
What is the only thumb muscle solely innervated by the ulnar nerve?
Adductor pollicis
What attaches to the flexor retinaculum?
Palmaris longus
Which muscle can flex the thumb at all its joints?
Flexor pollicis longus
Which muscle is always flexing the elbow?
Brachialis
What abducts and adducts the fingers?
Palmar interossei (adducts)
Dorsal interossei (abducts)
What is the action of a forehand stroke of tennis at the wrist?
Flexion
What is the main cause of carpal tunnel syndrome?
Compression of the median nerve
What structures make up the funny bone?
Medial epicondyle & ulnar nerve
What is tennis elbow known as?
Lateral epicondylitis
What is golfer's elbow also known as?
Medial epicondylitis
What muscle do you need to make the OK sign?
Opponens pollicis
What is the origin of supraspinatus?
Supraspinous fossa
What is the insertion of supraspinatus?
Greater tubercle
What is the origin of infraspinatus?
Infraspinus fossa
What is the insertion of infraspinatus?
Greater tubercle
What is the origin of teres minor?
Upper 2/3 of axillary border
What is the insertion of teres minor?
Greater tubercle
What is the origin of subscapularis?
Subscapular fossa
What is the insertion of subscapularis?
Lesser tubercle
What is the origin of latissimus dorsi?
Thoracolumbar aponeurosis, lower 6 spinous processes
What is the insertion of latissimus dorsi?
Bicipital groove
What is the origin of teres major?
Inferior angle, lower 1/3 axillary border
What is the insertion of teres major?
Bicipital groove
What is the origin of pectoralis major?
Clavicular head: medial 1/2 of clavicle
Sternal head: sternum
What is the insertion of pectoralis major?
Bicipital groove
What is the origin of deltoids?
Anterior: Lateral 1/3 clavicle
Middle: Lateral acromion
Posterior: Spine of scapula
What is the insertion of deltoids?
Deltoid tuberosity
What is the origin of coracobrachialis?
Coracoid process
What is the insertion of coracobrachialis?
Medial middle 1/3 of humerus
What are the actions for hammering at the wrist?
Upswing: radial deviation
Downswing: ulnar deviation
Which muscles are used for hammering at the wrist?
Upswing: Extensor carpi radialis longus, flexor carpi radialis
Downswing: Extensor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi ulnaris