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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the functions of the nervous system?
Regulation of homeostasis;
Sensory fx: sensory input;
Integrative fx: analysis, storage & decision of sensory input;
Motor fx: response by activating effector organs
What are the different types of neurons?
Sensory, motor & interneurons
What is the function of a sensory neuron?
To transmit sensory impulses from the skin/organ to the CNS
What is the function of a motor neuron?
To carry impulses away from the CNS to the effector organs.
What is the function of an interneuron?
It is most abundant and communicates between different types and numbers of neurons.
What are the different types of neuroglia?
Astrocytes, microglia, epedymal cells, oligodendrocytes, satellite cells & Schwann cells
What is the function of astrocytes?
Form the blood brain barrier
What is the function of microglia?
What is the function of epedymal cells?
They line the cavities of brain/spinal cord and propel cerebral spinal fluid
What is the function of oligodendrocytes?
Produce myelin
What is the function of satellite cells?
They surround the neuron cell body
What is the function of Schwann cells?
Myelin; an intact neurolemma is vital for peripheral nerve regeneration.
What neuron type is entirely present within the CNS?
What has the possiblity to regenerate?
Peripheral nerve cells (schwann cells)
What must peripheral nerves have to regenerate?
An intact neurolemmacyte
What is the order of the phases of an action potential?
Resting potential, depolarizing phase, repolarizing phase, hyperpolarization phase & sodium-potassium pump
What happens during resting potential?
Gives the neuron a break
What happens during depolarizing phase?
Sodium (Na+) ions move inside
What happens during repolarizing phase?
Potassium (K+) ions move outside
What happens during hyperpolarization phase?
More K+ ions are on the outside than there are sodium ions on the inside.
What does the sodium-potassium pump do?
Corrects any imbalance of ions, puts everything back to normal
What cell is responsible for the function of the nervous system?
What does the PNS consist of?
31 pair of spinal nerves, 12 pair of cranial nerves & the ANS
What does the CNS consist of?
Brain & spinal cord
What are the components of a reflex arc?
Receptor, center, motor neuron, effector
What is the function of a receptor?
Detects stimuli
What is the center?
The CNS (spinal cord)
What is the function of a sensory neuron?
Carries afferent impulses to CNS
What is the function of a motor neuron?
Carries efferent impulses away from the CNS
What is an effector?
A muscle/gland that responds to the efferent impulses.
What is reciprocal inhibition?
A muscle's automatic response to a contraction of its antagonist.
What are the charges of a resting nerve cell?
Positive on the outside; negative on the inside
What is a synapse?
A microscopic space in which extracellular calcium (Ca2+) enters the axon terminal and forces the vesicles to release their neurotransmitter substance.
What is an arc?
A neural pathway that links a sensory receptor and an effector
What is the difference between mono and polysynaptic reflexes?
Mono: 1 motor neuron, no interneurons

Poly: Multiple motor & interneurons
What is the difference between self-propagation & saltatory conduction?
Self-propagation: AP starts at one end of the axon and is conducted away from that point to the axon's terminal.

Saltatory conduction: AP is triggered only at the nodes of Ranvier
What ion must enter the neuron in order for the neurotransmitter to be released?
Which reflex has a contralateral effect?
Cross extensor reflex
What are endoneurium, perineurium & epineurium?
Endoneurium: each nerve fiber/cell & myelin is wrapped in connective tissue

Perineurium: Groups of fibers are bound into bundles/fascicles

Epineurium: encloses groups of fascicles
What is the difference between ipsilateral & contralateral?
Ipsilateral: same side

Contralateral: different side
What are Nissl bodies?
Rough ER
What is myelin?
Lipoid substance found in the myelin sheath around some nerve fibers
What is the most abundant neurotransmitter?
Acetylcholine (ACh)
What are the different types of receptors?
Mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, chemoreceptors, photoreceptors, nociceptors
What is the function of mechanoreceptors?
When tissues are deformed by mechanical forces (touch, pressure)
What is the function of thermoreceptors?
Sensitive to temperature changes
What is the function of photoreceptors?
Respond to light energy (eye)
What is the function of chemoreceptors?
Respond to chemicals in solutions (smell, taste)
What is the function of nociceptors?
Respond to potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain
What are the Nodes of Ranvier?
Indentations that are found between adjacent Schwann cells