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158 Cards in this Set

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Spiritualism was a

1
Spiritualism was a religious cult started in 1848 by the Fox sisters. Spiritualists believed that the spirit of a human being survives the body after death and that communication is possible between the spirit and those who are left behind.
Lots of famous people including

2
Lots of famous people including James Fenimore Cooper, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Mary Todd Lincoln, and Ralph Waldo Emerson attempted to communicate with sprits.
The outbreak of spritualism began on

3
The outbreak of spirtualism began on April 1st of 1848 in upstate New York. Margaret Fox and Catherine Fox, adolescent girls, were sitting with their family when they began to hear taps in the house. Furniture flew around. The Fox sisters create a sort of morse code to communicate with the sprits.
People from all over the nation came to see

4
People from all over the nation to see this cabin and to speak with the dead. This becomes known as the "SPIRITUAL TELEGRAPH."
Many revivals started in upstate New York, including

5
Many revivals started in up-state New York, including, Protestant Revivalism, Millerites, Mormonism, and now Spiritualism.
P.T. Barnum, then a

6
P.T. Barnum, then a leader of a museum, hires the Fox sisters to give daily seances. This hiring created copycat spiritualist acts all over the country.
Table Tipping was a popular game

7
Table Tipping was a popular game in which people would enter a dark room and place hands their hands on a table and wait for it to spin.
Around this same time, the Davenport Brothers were known

8
Around this same time, the Davenport Brothers were known as escape artists.They would have themselves tied up, allow gas to flood into the room, have the lights of the hall darkened, and "miraculously" free themselves. While in the process of freeing themselves, the Davenport Brothers would have a band playing music that suggested it was the spirits who freed them. The Thorpe Brothers did the same thing.
Spiritualism may have come about as a reaction

TC,SC,LOLO,A,V,WRALC

9
Spiritualism may have come about as a reaction to technological changes, social changes, and the loss of loved ones. Spiritualism was also identified with radical reformers like abolitionists, vegetarians, and women reformers advocating looser clothing for women.
In the early 1800s, there was lots of paraphernelia about

10
In the early 1800s, there was lots of paraphernelia about death, a kind of pornography of death. It was common for large families to have lost one or more children. Because of the everpresence of death, some people turned to spiritualism for answers.
Andrew Jackson Davis was the major

11
Andrew Jackson Davis was the major philosopher of spiritualism who went on the lecture circuit all across the country. Davis would go into a trance and spout out romanitc spiritualist philosophy.
The essence of spiritualist philosophy involved

12
The essence of spiritualist philosophy involved a belief that the Earth is where a person lives, walks, and talks. Yet, people are not conscious of the seven spheres around the Earth. People reside on the first sphere. When people die, they go to the 2nd sphere--a kind of purgatory. If a person is good, they move onto the third level. The 7th Sphere is heaven.
Spirits contact humans to

13
Spirits contact humans to mentor them. They have waited until this point in history to aid humans because society has progressed to a point where it is ready to understand them.
Spirits on the upper rings tried to

14
Spirits on the upper rings tried to pull people up to the next level. These spirits were believed to really know the truth--and would sometimes instruct people to do crazy things like stop wearing clothes. Andrew Jackson Davis led through 3 divorces because spirits told him he had yet to find his true soul mate.
John Humphrey Noyes set up a

15
John Humphrey Noyes set up a communal living arrangement known as ONEIDA---A commune organized around sexual practices. Men and Women were selected to be parents--men decide who has children and who don't.
Spirits wanted ____with the Earth

16
Spirits wanted conversation with the Earth. Some people said to have sex with spirits.
John Murray Spear was a

17
John Murray Spear was a universalist minister who interacted with spirits known as electrolizers. They promised to show him how to create perpetual motion and limitless energy. They commanded Spear to build a lighthouse on a hill in Massachusetts and fill it with strange machines, wheels, and crystals. They told him to bring a woman up to the lighthouse to impregnate her and create the NEW ENGLAND EMOTIVE POWER. Lightning was to provide eternal power for the human race.
Robert Hare created

18
Rober Hare created apparatuses for measuring spirit energy. Instead of basing Spiritualism on faith, he tried to create physical proof of spiritualism.
Cora Scott, a very attractive woman, was

19
Cora Scott, a very attractive woman, was a spiritualist who, in the 1850s, went around lecturing all over the country. She would go into a trance and the spirits would speak through her. Strange mix of spirituality and sexuality.
In the 1840s and 1850s, the Whig Party

20
In the 1840s and 1850s, the Whig Party tried to encourage entrepeneurialism by instituting a national system. The major question was how to encourage individualism without becoming a slave to the state.
Jefferson and Hamilton disagreed on the role of

21
Jefferson and Hamilton disagreed on the role of the Yeomen Farmer v. Industrialism, Nationalism v. Localism, and a Good v. Bad interpretation of humanity.
Jeffersonian Democrats believe that

22
Jeffersonina Democrats believe that humans are virtuous and don't need government restraints to be good.
Hamilton says that the government

23
Hamilton says that the government needs to control and channel peoples behavior to force them to act as virtous Republicans--even when they are not.
Hamiltonians were in favor of

24
Hamiltonians were in favor of progress and change. The Democrats also supported progress and change, but felt guilty about their support. Democrats worried that industry is not sound and have a nostalgic longing for the past. Felt guilty about violating organicism with the competetive world of change.
Jefferson's philosophies lead to the

25
Jefferson's philosophies lead to the creation of the Democratic Party and Hamilton's Philosophies lead to the creation of the Whig Party.
In the 1850s, there is a distinct

26
In the 1850s, there is a distinct shift from philosophical issues to economic/sectional issues. In the 1850s, slavery is the main issue to divide the sections of the country.
Jacksonian persuasion was a

27
Jacksonian persuasion was a powerful force that promoted a sort of nostalgia for images and icons of a simpler time. Whigs had to adopt Jacksonian rhetoric to win elections.
Henry Clay was a

28
Henry Clay was a westerner like Jackson that came from a new area of the west. He saw the west, with its enormous supply of natural resources, as a place to be developed, not as a place for the Yeomen Farmers.
Henry Clay wanted to consolidate development with

29
Henry Clay wanted to consolidate development with the creation of the AMERICAN SYSTEM. The AMERICAN SYSTEM was a set of interlocking policies addressing the aspects of what the US needed to do to become a strong nation.
The American System had four major aspects:

PT,II,NB,RPOWS

30
The American System had four major aspects: Protective Tariff, Internal Improvements, National Bank, and Restrictive Policy of Western Settlement.
The Protective Tariff focused on

31
The Protective Tariff focused on promoting economic independence from Great Britain by putting unnaturally high duties on certain foreign goods--especially textiles. The US was essentially an economic colony of England and lost lots of income to British goods. These duties would also trigger the opening of American Cotton Mills.
Internal Improvements focused on

32
Internal Improvements focused on the building of canals, roads, and railroads to facilitate trade between among all the states of the country. The tariffs on British manufacturers would help pay for these internal improvements.
The focus of the National Bank was to

33
The focus of the National Bank was to promote the economic growth of the country in a controlled way. The National Bank would also give out credit to those who best knew how to use it for the betterment of the nation.
The Restrictive Policy of Western Settlement focused on

34
The Restrictive Policy of Western Resettlement focused on preventing a chaotic colonization of the west by promoting a gradual buildup of the west. The policy meant to ensure that the west was settled responsibly by ensuring that religious and educational facilities were built. It also ensured that western land would be very expensive so that only wealthy, good people could buy land. Money from sale of lands would ensure that the west became more connected to the nation and aid internal improvements.
The "Benevolent Empire," was a

35
The "Benevolent Empire," was an evangelical protestant establishment meant to buy up the western lands. The Whigs wanted to transform those people who were enthused by the 2nd Great Awakening into civlized Republicans by moving them away from the uncontrolled passions of the heart.
The South was strongly opposed to

36
The South was strongly opposed to the protective tariff because it cost more to buy finished textile products from Northern Mills than English Mills. The price of raw cotton also went down because Northern Mills did not need it as much as British Mills. Britain eventually decides to start buying its cotton from India--thus throwing the southern economy into turmoil.
The South claimed it was being

37
The South claimed it was being taxed to line the pockets of Northern Mill owners. Clay said the Tariff promoted a system of reciprocity--one section does one part of labor, the other section does the other half of the labor.
The Whigs came together as a political

38
The Whigs came together as a politcal party in opposition to the policies of Andrew Jackson--especially over the debate to recharter the 2nd Bank of the US.
The 2nd Bank was a

39
The 2nd Bank was a centralized bank responsible for fiscal policies that Henry Clay and other Whigs supported. Andrew Jackson eventually takes out all of the deposits in the bank and spread them all over the country. The Whigs were opposed to this and felt that Jackson was squandering the wealth of the nation.
The Tariff of 1832 was a

40
The Tariff of 1832 was a tariff that southerners oppossed. South Carolina became so angered by that, under the leadership of John C. Calhoun, said it could nullify any federal law it disagreed with. Jackson forces South Carolina to accept the law, but also created a compromise tariff that was below what many Whigs wanted.
The Maysville Road Veto was a

41
The Maysville Road Veto was a veto issued by Andrew Jackson banning the use of federal funds to promote internal improvement in Kentucky. Jackson said that Kentucky, not the Federal Government, could pay for a road if it really wanted one.
Major Wilson said that the main difference between the Democrats and the Whigs dealt with

42
Major Wilson said the main difference between the Democrats and the Whigs dealt with TIME and SPACE. Democrats were obseseed with SPACE and Whigs were obsessed with TIME. Democrats wanted to settle the west as soon as possible in any way possible. The Whigs wanted the colonization of the west to occur in a slow, balanced way that would ensure success.
To win back the presidency from

43
To win back the presidency from the Democrats, the Whigs select William Henry Harrison to be their presidential candidate in 1840.
William Henry Harrison was the

44
William Henry Harrison was the hero of the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. He was born in LOG CABIN, which meant he came from a humble background, and made floats with log cabins on them that would dispense cider from the back of them. In this way, Harrison co-opts the image of Jackson, thus making the Harrison campaign the first in US history based on creating an image that was not in any way related to what the Whigs were all about.
The Campaign of William Henry Harrison was known as

45
The Campaign of William Henry Harrison was known as "Tippecanoe and Tyler Too." His campaign marked the rise of professional politicians who emphasized image over substance.
One week after Harrison's inauguration,

46
One week after Harrison's inauguration, he died of pneumonia. Tyler, his vice president was a pro-slavery southerner who did not represent the Whigs at all. Tyler alienated the Whig party that elected him to gain the southern vote and fired most of his Whig cabinet memebrs. These actions helped transform the debate over the philosophies of Jefferson and Hamilton into geograhical arguments over slavery and the west.
W.J.Cash wrote "Mind of the South," a book detailing

I,RS,SN/R

47
"Mind of the South" was a book written by W.J. Cash detailing 3 important attributes of the south. The 3 attributes are Individualism, a Romantic Spirit, and a Spiritual Nature/Religiousity.
According to Cash, Individualism originated

48
According to Nash, individualism originated in Virginia during the 1600s. The urge for self sufficiency led to individualism and the maintenacne of one's honor and chivalry.
A Romantic Spirit was a

49
A Romantic Spirit was a sensous, romantic spirit that Cash attributed to the warm, hot, muggy climate of the south that encourages one to dream and be lazy. The Upper Class gains leisure from slavery and believed that extravagance was more valuable than anything.
A Spiritual Nature/Religiousity comes from

50
A Spiritual Nature/Religiousity comes from Calvinism and a sense of sin that comes from individualism and a romantic spirit that encouraged hedonism. This lead to a cycle of guilt.
In "Burden of Southern History," historian

51
In "Burden of Southern History," historian C. Vann Woodward says that the South is unique because the American Dream is predicated on the belief that if you work hard enough you can earn it and get rich. Woodward argues that abundance, success, and wealth are things that southern society has not experienced. Until the Vietnam War, the south was the only part of the country that had to admit it lost a major military engagement--known as "Lost Cause Society."
Woodward says that limitation such as that

52
Woodward says that limitation such as that experienced in the south causes pesimism, a sense of defeat, and poverty. These are very un-American things that are not experienced by the whole country. Woodward says people in Europe experienced the same things as those in the south before coming to America.
Southerners thought of the south as

53
Southerners thought of the south as a bastion of organic feudalism--not as the hyper-competitive-exploitative capitalism of the North. This argument was used to mystify slavery and protect the institution of slavery. Slaves provide labor, Mastes provide slaves food, shelter, and healthcare.
George Fitzhugh wrote "Sociology of the South," a book

54
George Fitzhugh wrote "Sociology of the South," a book saying that the workers of the North were slaves and that their employers did not care about them. Fizthugh said that slaves live better lives than northern white workers.
The "Plantation Myth" was a myth that many

55
The "Plantation Myth" was a myth that many northerners and southerners bought into. In Plantation Novels, plantation life seemed to flow with love, sunshine, and happiness. Plantation Novels were idealized versions of slavery in which slaves served masters out of the goodness of thier own hearts. This caused high-minded aristocratic whites to believe that they were not exploiting slaves.
Northerners consumed Plantation Novels as a sort of

56
Northerners consumed Plantation Novels as a sort of escapism--to bring back the Jeffersonian Idealism that said country life is better than city life and that farm work is better than factory work. Plantation Novels helped northerners to forget about the breakdown of the family unit as people would move all over the country. They also helped northerners to escape from the hyper-competitive factory life violates the organic social ideal.
Southerners created many defenses to slavery in response to

57
Southerners created many defenses to slavery in response to abolitionism. Southerners used the arguments of Aristotle, Fitzhugh, the Biblical curse of Ham, the Constitution, Pseudoscientific practices, and black inferiority.
Aristotle argued that the

58
Aristotle argued for the natural inequality of man. Fitzhugh said that some were born with saddles on their backs--others were born with boots to ride them, and that riding does them good.
Noah cursed Ham and his descendants, saying they

59
Noah cursed Ham and his descendants, saying they would be doomed to eternal servitude. Southerners said blacks were the descendants of Ham.
The Constitution counted slaves as

60
The Constitution counted slaves as three-fifths of a person.
Pseudoscientific practices encouraged a belief in "Multiple Creationism" by saying

61
Pseudoscientific practices encouraged a belief in "Multiple Creationism" by saying that God did not create a single race of human beings, but, in fact, created human beings separately. This belief came to be known as "Multiple Creationism."
Paternalism was based upon the

62
Paternalism was based upon the idea that blacks were weak and gentle, brute or savage, and needed to be slowly uplifted and educated.
The Theme of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin is

63
The Theme of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin is a that slavery is a complete failure with slave families being sold or neglected because a slave owner gets into debt. The novel also tried to make whites feel the pain of losing a child so that whites could better relate to the pain of blacks who constantly lose children.
Slavery was an economic

64
Slavery was an economic system in which slaves were referred to as "chattel," meaning ordinary goods like a car, pencil, or shoes. Southern slave owners were also in the business of breeding slaves to sell to slave owners. "I consider every child raised as part of the crop."
In 1959, Stanley Elkins wrote a book called

65
In 1959, Stanley Elkins wrote a book called "Sambo," a book stereotyping blacks as childlike, silly, and lazy. Elkins described "Sambo" as the typical slave who was loyal, docile, full of infantile silliness, and possessing a childlike attachment. This childlike quality was the key to being a slave.
Elkins made an analogy between

66
Elkins makes an analogy between Africans sold and brought to America and Jews put in train cars and sent to Germany. Elkins says the Middle Passage must have been so traumatic and harrowing a voyage that some of their humanity was removed. These Africans emerged into a totally disorienting system that they could never understand or get out of.
Some Jews cracked under pressure and

67
Some Jews cracked under pressure and both worshipped Nazis and turned on fellow Jews. The concentration camp was their world.
Slavery becomes the world

68
Slavery becomes the world of blacks. As a result of being stripped of their language and culture, blacks were infantilized.
In 1974, Eugene Genovese wrote a book called

69
In 1974, Eugene Genovese wrote a book called "Roll, Jordan, Roll," a book that claimed the relationship between slave and master was symbiotic. He said that slaves influenced masters as much as masters influenced slaves.
While Elkins painted a picture of

69
While Elkins painted a picture of demoralized slavery, Genovese paints a picture of the paternalistic myth with a vengeance. The Master provides for the slaves and the slaves bind themselves to their master like children. The slaves make the master feel sentiment towards them and thus cause the master to treat them as his own children. This is known as Dialectic Accomodation and Resistance.
Dialectic Accomodation is a

70
Dialectic Accomodation and Resistance is a subversive way that slaves would assert their personality and rights. Paternal Love and Infantile Love could work both ways.
Elkins said that coming over in the Middle Passage

71
Elkins said that coming over in the Middle Passage stripped black people of their identity. Genovese records elements of religios emotionalism, voodoo, language, craft, and other aspects of surviving African Culture. The master did not know about these things--black retain culture because of it.
Genovese says it was unfortunate that the

72
Genovese says it was unfortunate that the religion slaves were introduced to by masters was Christianity. Christianity has a passive, turn-the-other-cheek mentality that slaves highly valued. The slaves loooked at the Israelites as an oppressed people whom God led out of captivity. Whites knew the Israelites as the children of God.
Genovese says that Christianity caused

WFRFC,TGTH,TTOC

74
Genovese says that Christianity caused slaves to wait for release from captivity, to go to heaven, and to turn the other cheek when slighted. Not an active mentality but a passive mentality.
Slaves were not like

74
Slaves were not like infantile zombies (Elkins), but, according to Genovese, maintained themselves as individuals in many ways.
David Roediger's "Wages of Whiteness" emphasizes

76
David Roediger's "Wages of Whiteness" emphasizes class struggle by introducing race, something socialists and communists haven't paid much attention to. Roediger's book could be classified as whiteness studies--the study of people typically associated as white. (Germans, Irish, Scotts, Italians, etc.)
Roediger attempts to prove that whites

77
Roediger attempts to prove that whites have a sense of racial superiority that separates them from other races. He says "the white hireling had the possiblity of social mobility--the black did not." This meant that no matter how exploited and poorly paid a white worker was, whites had the opportunity to climb the social ladder.
Roediger says that, no matter how badly off the white worker was,

78
Roediger says that, no matter how badly off the white worker was, a white worker will never fall lower than blacks at the bottom rung.
Roediger discusses how blacks were denied

79
Roediger discusses how blacks were denied political power when conservative politicans warned whites that giving blacks the ability to vote would cause whites to lose power. This kills the pro-black populist party.
Roediger also refers to how

80
Roediger also refers to how whites feared enslavement as a very real thing. Whites made comparisons between black slaves and white indentured servants and feared that the British might try to enslave America. Imprisonment for debt, tnenant farming, and the hiring out of convicts and the impressment of sailors also contribute to this feeling of political enslavement.
Blackface provided a way for

81
Blackface provided a way for whites to express themeselves sexually, express political dissent, and do it all in a way that would prevent them from getting in trouble.
Roediger also discusses the fear many

82
Roediger also discusses the fear many whites had of being labeled "black." The Irish had to fight the stereotype of being black due to rumors that "inbreeding" with blacks had occurred and that they were lazy. Irish also came from rural backgrounds similar to blacks of the time.
------------------------------
The Scientific basis for racism tries to

83
------------------------------The Scientific basis for racism tries to scientifically prove that there is a hierarchy of different races with whites at the top and blacks at the bottom.
The Scientific basis for racism directly challenges the

84
The Scientifc basis for racism directly challenges the Adam and Eve creation story. U.S. is a Christian socieyt, but it is acceptable to scientifically justify racism.
Monogenesis is the

85
Monogenesis is the Judeo-Christian view of Adam and Eve. Polygenesis is the view that we don't all descend from Adam and Eve and that God created each race separately.
Slaveholders disliked monogenesis because

86
Slaveholders disliked monogenesis because it suggested that all people were created equal.
Thomas Jefferson said that all

87
Thomas Jefferson said that all men are created equal but felt that blacks were inferior to whites. He worried about what it meant to regard God's creatures as inferior, but also did not know how to explain all of the differences between blacks and whites.
John Locke, Benjamin Rush, the Bible, and the American Revolution all said

88
John Locke, Benjamin Rush, the Bible, and the American Revolution all said that all men were created equal and should not be subordinate to others.
In 1787, Samuel Stanhope Smith became the first

89
In 1787, Samuel Stanhope Smith became the first person to try and answer the question of why the races were so different.
In 1787, Smith's "Essays on True Causes of Variety of Complexion in the Human Species," attempted to

90
In 1787, Smith's "Essays on True Causes of Variety of Complexion in the Human Species," said that humans belong to the same species, climate causes differences in skin color, and that Africans were less developed than Europeans because they lived as savages in Africa and as slaves in America.
The problem with Smith's arguments centered on

91
The problem with Smith's arguments centered on how racial inferiority becomes hereditary. Smith has no answer to this, he thinks that changes occurred gradually and were shaped by the environment.
In the 1830s, Samuel Morton founded the

92
In the 1830s, Samuel Morton founded the American School of Anthropology when he published "Crania Americana," a study looking at the cranium of various skulls to determine the brain size of different people.
The results of the skull measurings caused Morton to believe

93
The results of different skull measurings caused Morton to believe that races had different skull shapes and cranial capacities.
Morton did not believe that the environmental approach of

94
Morton did not believe that the environmental approach of Smith explained the differences in skull shapes. Instead of the Adam and Eve story, Morton believed that an all-wise Creator had adapted man to the physical as well as moral circumstances in which he was to dwell. Each race was suited towards a particular area.
Morton did not believe in

95
Morton did not believe in Polygenesis. He felt that after Noah's flood, races were dispersed all over the planet. God mercifully gave out different racial characteristics to help people cope with climate of their new locations.
The results of Morton's skull measurements showed that

96
The results of Morton's skull measuremens showed that Caucasians were the smartest people on the globe because their skulls were a few inches larger than the skulls of other races. He used his findings to establish a racial hierarchy for determining intelligence and worth.
In the 1830s, George Gliddon collected

97
In the 1830s, George Gliddon collected Egyptian skulls for Morton.
In the 1840s, Gliddon published "Crania Aegyptiaca,"

98
In the 1840s, Gliddon published "Crania Aegyptiaca," a book that claimed that the Egyptians were two races--Aryans who ran the country and black Africans who were the slaves of the period. Gliddon claimed that inequality had existed for 3,000 years. This research was very well recieved in the south.
In the 1840s, Dr. Josiah C. Nott claimed that,

99
In the 1840s, Dr. Josiah C. Nott claimed that, frop his experience as a doctor, whites and blacks were not only different races, but different species.
Americans objected to Dr. Nott's claim by

100
Americans objected to Dr. Nott's claim by saying that it contradicted the Bible. Nott responded by saying that the Bible did not include the whole range of literal science and that, even though the Bible is the revealed Word of God, the Hebrews were savages and could not interpret it correctly.
Dr. Nott claimed that God created blacks at

101
Dr. Nott claimed that God created blacks at separate moments from whites, thus creating separate species.
In the 1840s, Nott created "Two Lectures on the Natural History of the Caucasian and Negro Races," lectures that

102
In the 1840s, Nott created "Two Lectures on the Natural History of the Caucasian and Negro Races," lectures that were designed to fight abolitionism.
In the 1840s, E. G. Squier was one of the first American Archaeologists to

103
In the 1840s, E. G. Squier was one of the first American Archaeologist to become interested in burial grounds. Squier dug up skulls in Ohio and determined that the skulls were of the exact cranial capacity of contemporary Indians. This, along with sedimentary layers found around the skulls suggested that Indians had been in North America since the dawn of time.
In the 1840s, Squier published "Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley," a book

104
In the 1840s, Squier published "Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley," a book that was very important to the South because it claimed to give Negroes their "proper" place at the bottom.
In the 1850s, Dr. Josiah C. Nott began to publish

105
In the 1850s, Dr. Josiah C. Nott began to publish articles in the Southern Quartlery Journal aimed at proving the distinct creation of different races. Nott said that Africans were inferior and deserved to be slaves.
In 1854, Dr. Nott and George Gliddon published "Types of Mankind," an argument that

106
In 1854, Dr. Nott and George Glidon published "Types of Mankind," a publication that brought together all of the arguments for poly-creationism. Gliddon published it for the political purposes of slavery, Notts did it, possibly, to support slavery and irritate orthodox Christians.
After the Civil War, Darwin's "On the Origin of Species" kills the

107
After the Civil War, Darwin's "On the Origin of Species" kills the American School of Anthropolocy with its emphasis on Natural Selection. Nott is willing to support Darwin's theories as long as they support racism--Darwin's theories show how certain species diverge and become unequal.
In the 1850s, Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin starts with

108
In the 1850s, Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin starts with the Shelby's make sure those who support slavery continue reading and to establish a sort of middleground between slavery and abolitionism.
Individual southerners and slave holders read Uncle Tom's Cabin just to see

109
Individual southerners and slave holders read Uncle Tom's Cabin just to see what issues were being raised. When they realized it was abolitionist, they attacked "Uncle Tom's Cabin" as an abomination.
The political theme sthroughout the book dealt with

110
The political themes throughout the book dealt with personal morality v. morality of the state, women's rights, and abolitionism.
Stowe aimed to change the

111
Stowe aimed to change the conscience of each individual reader in the same way that the 2nd Great Awakening did. She wanted to domesticate her readers and make them good, anti-slavery Christians.
Genre paintings were paintings that showed

112
Genre paintings were paintings that showed how people lived. Stowe tries to give the reader a literary Genre image of Uncle Tom's cabin and a degariotype picture of Unlce Tom to show an umanipulated form of reality. She described Tom as large, having a powerful chest, African features, kindness, and gray hair. Gray hair was meant to make him a grandfather type figure for Eva to avoid sexual controversy.
Stowe's major objection to slavery centered on the

113
Stowe's major objection to slavery centered on the destruction of the family. The sanctity of the family preserves its members from the competitive economic forces that would cause society to explode.
Uncle Tom's Cabin is also a

114
Uncle Tom's Cabin is also a manifesto for women's rights and domesticity. Women have to raise families, nurture men, and transform them into good Christians. In one part, a slave mentions how good it feels to know his wife and kid "belong" to him--suggesting that women are the same as slaves. Uncle Tom also has certain feminine characteristics--"all the affections of his race are strong"--a statement which could also be applied to white women.
Haley is a stereotype of the standard American

115
Haley is a stereotype of the standard American businessman "trying to elbow his way up in the world."
Uncle Tom's Cabin was the last

116
Uncle Tom's Cabin was the last plantation novel, but also deconstructs and destroys it. Plantation Novels were popular because they portrayed an unchanging, static place where nothing changes and everything is organic. Stowe, however, powerfully states that slavery and plantation life violates domesticity.
Although Stowe wants to abolish slavery, she offers no

117
Although Stowe wants to abolish slavery, she offers no plan on what to do when the slaves are freed. What do you do with a class of people who have been bruatlized for 200 years?
Stowe portrays blacks as

118
Stowe portrays blacks as docile, gentle, and good with their master's children. Lighter skinned blacks like George, Eliza, and Harry make their way north while darker skinned blacks like Uncle Tom make their way south. Lighter skins succeed, darker skins crucificed in the south. Stowe also believed that blacks were the chosen people of God.
Eva and Uncle Tom were

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Eva and Uncle Tom were Christ figures in the novel. Before Eva dies, she cuts off locks of hair and distributes them to every slave on the plantation--like Jesus distributing the bread at the last supper. Eva also says, "If I could die to save all of our slaves, I would." When Tom dies after being whipped to death, he says--"Into thy hands I commend my spirit."
Stowe portrays a young blonde girl and a black man as Christ figures to show that

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Stowe portrays a young blonde girl and a black man as Christ figures to show that Christianity is for everyone. Jesus can use a blonde girl as easily as He can use a black man. Everyone is equal in the eyes of God.
Uncle Tom's Cabin can also be seen as a Jeremiad Sermon due to

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Uncle Tom's Cabin can also be seen as a Jeremiad Sermon due to Stowe saying that "North and South have been guilty before God, and the Christian Church has a heavy account to answer--by repentance, justice, and mercy," the U.S. can be saved. Thus, if slavery is not destroyed from the nation, God will destroy His people.
Harriet Beecher Stowe wanted Uncle Tom's Cabin to

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Harriet Beecher Stowe wanted Uncle Tom's Cabin to change one person at a time in the hopes of ending slavery. Individuals will be moved, and they, in turn, will move others.
Uncle Tom's Cabin was a revolution of

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Uncle Tom's Cabin was a revolution of consciousness because it united people through sentiments, not individualism, and focused on the domestic circle of the home.
In the Civil War, Diachotomy was the

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In the Civil War, Diachotomy was tension between the need to form a community (Winthrop) and the explosive forces of individualism. This was a pendulum that swung back and forth throughout American History.
Puritans believed in the Winthrop standard of

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Puritans believed in the Winthrop standard of "being knit together in this work as one man."
Later American's moved from God's errand to

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Later American's moved from God's errand to their own individual, economic errands. This transition was known as "from God to cod." Some Americans saw this shift as a sign of declension while other saw this shift as a sign of progress.
In the old south, there is no

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In the old south, there is no community and hardly a single church. There existed a "lazy south" stereotype of individuals over community.
When the Revolutionary era arrived, a sense of

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When the Revolutionary era arrived, a sense of community existed among the Patriots. After the Revolution, however, there was a falling away of community values.
The Jacksonian era was an era of

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The Jacksonian era was an era of explosive individualist energies, business, technology, and competitive individualism. The 2nd Great Awakening was caused by these forces and used by conservatives to put people to work in tract societies and Bible societies.
For Conservative Northerners, the Civil War was an opportunity to

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For Northerners, the Civil War was an opportunity to conservatively consolidate the Union. Individualist values were temporarily submerged as people dedicated themselves to a common goal. It also served as an opportunity to reverse Jeffersonian-Democratic Individualism.
The Southern States left the

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The Southern States left the Union one by one in the 1860s. Most Northernern radicals celebrated this departure. Emerson referred to it as radical individualism. William Lloyd Harrison, a radical abolitionist, supported the southern states' departure.
For Northern radicals, it made no sense to

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For Northern radicals, it made no sense to force the south to stay in a country it did not want to be a part of. Their arguments were based on reason.
When the War started in April of 1861, Northerners transformed into

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When the Civil War started in April of 1861, Northerners transformed into Unionist patriots embracing the cause. Emerson got caught up in what he called a "magnet of patriotism" that pulls people together into one terrific unity. Walt Whitman enjoyed the unity of the times and felt that war fervor was a good thing. Moncure Conway, a Southern Transcendentalist, was disgusted by the war and stayed in England for its duration.
Charles Elliot Norton saw the struggle for Kansas as

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Charles Elliot Norton saw the struggle in Kansas as the struggle of A City on a Hill v. the Lazy Southern Plantation. He saw New England Community Life spreading across Kansas and overcoming the Lazy South.
Horace Bushnell preached a Jeremiad sermon in which

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Horace Bushnell preached a Jeremiad sermon in which he said that the Civil War was God's punishment and that the only way to end the punishment would be for the North to come together and defeat the South.
Henry Bellows saw secession as

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Henry Bellows saw secession as a way to promote a strong nationlized government that would bring the nation more fully together. Bellows also felt that the Civil War could heal the unhappy alienation of Church and State--thus creating a strong Christian nation.
The Civil War ushered in an age of

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The Civil War ushered in an age of technological efficiency. The Civil War became the first modern war by making use of ironclad battleships, systems of mass production for weapons and food, the telegraph and an entirely mobilized society. The modernity of the Civil War brought about the final defeat of Jeffersonian Individualism.
The Cult of Efficiency referred to the Northern belief that

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The Cult of Efficiency referred to the Northern belief that experts must run everything. The U.S. Sanitary Commission was designed to keep soldiers wounds clean. The USSC was staffed only by professionals because it was believed that volunteers would just create trouble. The USSC ran hospitals and hired nurses, and employed a very structured system of management.
Henry Bellows believed that "inviting together 200-300

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Henry Bellows believed that "inviting together 200-300 men of integrity" to shape policy for the government would be an extremely advantageous thing to do. This organization would not be a part of the government, it would be extra-governmental. This plan intended to do away with irritating, small-deed Democrats.
Robert Gould Shaw was a white man from

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Robert Gould Shaw was a white man from Boston who was chosen to be the white commander of the first black regiment of the Union Army. Shaw's regiment was almost totally decimated in its first engagement in South Carolina. Shaw died in the engagement.
Robert Gould Shaw was not regarded as a

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Robert Gould Shaw was not regarded as an abolitionist leading free blacks into battle. Shaw's sacrifice was regarded as a redemptive act on his part. What Shaw did reflected class pride--leading lesser people, not people of equal stature, into battle. Thus, Shaw was said to have taken up the White Man's Burden--leading those who are unequal to whites and lifting them up.
Corporate Organicism said that it was okay to

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Corporate Organicism said that it was okay to be an individualist if you succeeded because success would cause you to rise to the top. Then, everyone else would know their place below you.
The Civil War created an efficient

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The Civil War created an efficient administrative elite and thus created a closed nation--those who fall deserve to fall.
In the 1840s, women were believed to be the only ones

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In the 1840s, women were believed to be the only ones maintaining what society was losing. This becomes a springboard for them to start talking about more radical ideas.
Separate Spheres refers to the sphere of the man

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Separate Spheres refers to the sphere of the man outside of the home and the sphere of the woman inside the home.
Around the 1840s, Barbara Welter wrote "The Cult of True Womanhood," a book

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Around the 1840s, Barbara Welter wrote "The Cult of True Womanhood," a book that looked at magazines for women and discussed how they contributed to women feeling like "hostages in the home." Welter said that magazines encouraged women to possess PIETY, PURITY, SUBMISSION, and DOMESTICITY.
Piety, refers to

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Piety refers a woman's spirituality and religion and her duty in taking away sin in life. PURITY is related to spirituality, but deals more with sexual or physical purity. "The coldest reserve is more admirable than the least approach at familiarity."
Submission refers to

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Submission refers to the fact that women were supposed to submit themselves to men. Women were to be humble, dependant, and silent. DOMESTICITY refers to the woman's role at home.
Houses of the 1830s and later were formed with a

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Houses of the 1830s were formed with a parlor in front and rooms of privacy like the kitchen and family rooms in the back. Commercial society met in the PARLOR, where there is the best furniture. There, the guests would be tested and, if found acceptable, home-owners would invite them to the back of the house where the family room and kitchen is.
In 1827, Education for domesticity refers to women being

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In 1827, Education for domesticity refers to women needing to be educated. A large number of schools were constructed for the education of women.
Elizabeth Sterns recalls learning

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Elizabeth Sterns recalls learning "ORNAMENTAL" subjects, subjects like rhetoric, grammar, lace work, history, that she was never supposed to learn.
Catherine Beecher was the daughter of

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Catherine Beecher was the daughter of Lyman Beecher and the sister of Harriet Beecher Stowe. She became a champion of professions for women, women's rights, wanted to raise the status of women by making them professionals. She decided that there were two careers for women: homemaking and teaching. Beecher said these jobs were essential to womanhood and wrote several advice book for homemakers. She tried
In the 1840s, Horace Bushnell wrote "Christian Nurture," a

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In the 1840s, Horace Bushnell wrote "Christian Nurture," a book claiming that was not neccessary to stir people up to make them feel the presence of God's grace. Bushnell claimed that the home was the place to develop good Christians.
Lydia Maria Child, an abolitionist in the 1840s, wrote about

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Lydia Maria Child, an abolitionist in the 1840s, wrote about the comparisons between white women and black people by saying that both are characterized by affection rather than intellect, religion, submission, and are considered property rather than individuals.
At the World's anti-slavery convention of 1840, women could attend but

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At the World's anti-slavery convention of 1840, women could attend but were not allowed into the hall where the anti-slavery convention was taking place.
In 1853, the World's Temperance Convention addressed

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In 1853, the World's Temperance Convention addressed issues associated with alchol but did not allow women to either be visible to male attendees or speak at the convention.
In 1848, the Seneca Falls Convention served as the

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In 1848, the Seneca Falls Convention served as the starting point for a women's rights movement demanding equality. The Declaration of Independance was a major influence at the convention.
In the 1830s, Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio was a

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In the 1830s, Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio, was the first co-ed college founded in the US. Despite being co-ed, even male radicals going to school with female radicals tried to make women get into the sphere of domesticity. According to one president, the presecence of women was essential at the college due to solving two problems: 1) The women prevented the men from having romantic, idealistic dreams about women. 2) Women provided cultured wives for graduates.