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25 Cards in this Set

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How is SERINE made and regulated?
SERINE can be made de novo in a pathway that takes 3-phosphoglycerate (3PGA) from glycolysis and due to a transamination with glutamate forms SERINE.

It is regulated by SERINE itself repressing the first enzyme 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and the last ennzyme phosphoserine phosphatase is inhibited by SERINE.
What is the major fate of serine (3C)?
How is it done?
Why is it important?
*GLYCINE (2C)

*Done using SERINE hydroxymethhyltransferase and the sigle carbon being captured by tetrahydrofolate (FH4) to form FH4-C1.
Reversible.

*Important b/c FH4-C1 can donate single carbons to other reactions (nucleotide synthesis, if don't have them can't make DNA and RNA)
What is serine hyroxymethyltransferase used for?
To convert SERINE to GLYCINE and capture a carbon for the single-carbon pool.
What is the major fate of Glycine?

How can this be accomplished?
*SERINE

*Can take 1 molecule of GLYCINE if have FH4-C1 to form SERINE.
*Can take one molecule of GLYCINE and break it down to NH3,CO2 and FH4-C1 (Glycine Cleavage). Take the FH4-C1 and add it to GLYCINE to form SERINE. (Can be used both ways to dund pool of FH4-C1)
What products can glycine make?
*Serine
*Glutathione
*Purines
*Porphyrins
*Glycocholate
*Creatine
How is OXALATE poisonous in humans?

What can it be formed from?
*It forms Ca-OXALATE which is insoluble. When it forms in the kidney, it can cause stones or kidney failure. If it is formed in the gut, it is excreted in feces.

*Ethylene Glycol in the liver. Therapy is beer.
How is OXALATE poisonous in humans?

What can it be formed from?
*It forms Ca-OXALATE which is insoluble. When it forms in the kidney, it can cause stones or kidney failure. If it is formed in the gut, it is excreted in feces.

*Ethylene Glycol in the liver. Therapy is beer.
How is OXALATE poisonous in humans?

What can it be formed from?
*It forms Ca-OXALATE which is insoluble. When it forms in the kidney, it can cause stones or kidney failure. If it is formed in the gut, it is excreted in feces.

*Ethylene Glycol in the liver. Therapy is beer.
What is CREATINE formed from?
Made from aa entirely
*Glycine
*Arginine
*Methionine (SAM)
Where is CREATINE made and what is it used for?
*starts synthesis in the kidney and is completed in the liver
*exported to muscle and brain for use
*if a high concentration of ATP exist, it will form the high E CREATINE PHOSPHATE, that is more energetic than ATP
*serves as a high energy resevoir that helps out during stress to phosphoylate ADP to ATP in muscle and brain
What is CREATINE formed from?
Made from aa entirely
*Glycine
*Arginine
*Methionine (SAM)
What is CREATINE formed from?
Made from aa entirely
*Glycine
*Arginine
*Methionine (SAM)
How is OXALATE poisonous in humans?

What can it be formed from?
*It forms Ca-OXALATE which is insoluble. When it forms in the kidney, it can cause stones or kidney failure. If it is formed in the gut, it is excreted in feces.

*Ethylene Glycol in the liver. Therapy is beer.
Where is CREATINE made and what is it used for?
*starts synthesis in the kidney and is completed in the liver
*exported to muscle and brain for use
*if a high concentration of ATP exist, it will form the high E CREATINE PHOSPHATE, that is more energetic than ATP
*serves as a high energy resevoir that helps out during stress to phosphoylate ADP to ATP in muscle and brain
How is CREATININE formed and what does it indicate?
*CREATININE is formed spontaneously and irreversibly from CREATINE PHOSPHATE
*Amount excreted daily is constant and is dependent on muscle mass, so it can be used as a gauge for dtermining the amounts of other compounds excreted in the urine or in the blood. The amount is a signal for kidney function, urine strength, and muscle wasting.
How is CREATININE formed and what does it indicate?
*CREATININE is formed spontaneously and irreversibly from CREATINE PHOSPHATE
*Amount excreted daily is constant and is dependent on muscle mass, so it can be used as a gauge for dtermining the amounts of other compounds excreted in the urine or in the blood. The amount is a signal for kidney function, urine strength, and muscle wasting.
Where is CREATINE made and what is it used for?
*starts synthesis in the kidney and is completed in the liver
*exported to muscle and brain for use
*if a high concentration of ATP exist, it will form the high E CREATINE PHOSPHATE, that is more energetic than ATP
*serves as a high energy resevoir that helps out during stress to phosphoylate ADP to ATP in muscle and brain
What is CREATINE formed from?
Made from aa entirely
*Glycine
*Arginine
*Methionine (SAM)
Are GLYCINE and SERINE glycogenic or ketogenic?
*GLUCOGENIC (glycine --> serine --> pyruvate)
Are GLYCINE and SERINE glycogenic or ketogenic?
*GLUCOGENIC (glycine --> serine --> pyruvate)
How is CREATININE formed and what does it indicate?
*CREATININE is formed spontaneously and irreversibly from CREATINE PHOSPHATE
*Amount excreted daily is constant and is dependent on muscle mass, so it can be used as a gauge for dtermining the amounts of other compounds excreted in the urine or in the blood. The amount is a signal for kidney function, urine strength, and muscle wasting.
Where is CREATINE made and what is it used for?
*starts synthesis in the kidney and is completed in the liver
*exported to muscle and brain for use
*if a high concentration of ATP exist, it will form the high E CREATINE PHOSPHATE, that is more energetic than ATP
*serves as a high energy resevoir that helps out during stress to phosphoylate ADP to ATP in muscle and brain
Are GLYCINE and SERINE glycogenic or ketogenic?
*GLUCOGENIC (glycine --> serine --> pyruvate)
How is CREATININE formed and what does it indicate?
*CREATININE is formed spontaneously and irreversibly from CREATINE PHOSPHATE
*Amount excreted daily is constant and is dependent on muscle mass, so it can be used as a gauge for dtermining the amounts of other compounds excreted in the urine or in the blood. The amount is a signal for kidney function, urine strength, and muscle wasting.
Are GLYCINE and SERINE glycogenic or ketogenic?
*GLUCOGENIC (glycine --> serine --> pyruvate)