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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Decision to use the Atomic bomb
It was used twice in WWII at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Truman knew nothing of the bomb until his presidency. Churchill knew but Stalin only knew through his spy net work.
Options for using the A-bomb.
Truman had 2 different options.
1) use as a demostration
Rejected because of:
1) communication problems
2)Japanesse might not think it was significant
3) It might be a dud
4) POW's might be put at bombing site.
2) Military use without warning. Used for its full shock value.
Context in which the A-bomb was used.
Saturation and fire bombing was already taking place since April.
Belief that Japanese would fight even harder.
Ends the war quickly.
US behavior as sole possessor of nuclear weapons.
Didn't use the A-bomb to control. The US did not stop Soviets from getting it. THere wasn't a rapid push towards more A-bombs. A multilateral approach was taken towards the A-bombs
The Baruch Plan.
Called for the creation of an International Atomic Developement Authority withing the U.N. This would control all nuclear programs. Soviets rejected it thinking the US would dominate and stop them from deveolopment.
Truman Administration's reaction to Soviet nuclear testing.
Truman was indifferent but concerned. 4 programs are started in response.
1) increases amount of A-bombs
2) gave up on Baruch Plan.
3) Push for more powerful nuclear bomb--> H-bomb
4) De-emphasizing Nuclear weapons & rather more on conventional forces.
Korean War and Nuclear Weapons. Why weren't they used?
4 reasons why:
1) lack of targets
2) still worried about a war with Soviets and might spread throughout the world
3) Truman didn't want to use it again.
4) It was not a US war but a UN one
Role that the nuclear weapons played in the Korean War.
Set the standard that there would be no direct confrontation between US & Ussr because it could lead to Nuclear War. During the war the threat of nuclear weapons kept the war limited due to fear of escalation.
The great debate over the development of the H-bomb.
Before the test of H-bomb decision that it must be developed to deter the other as well as keeping them rational. US test first H-bomb in 1952 9 months later Soviets test theirs. By 1955 both sides have operational weapons that are able to be delivered.
Eisenhower's "Atoms for Peace" & "Opens Skies" Program.
Atoms for Peace--> Suggested US, USSR, and England donate Uranian to international atomic energy agency (IAEA) to be used for medicine & engergy and in 1957 its created.
Open Skies--> flying over military areas would be allowed. Soviets reject thsi policy. Eisenhower begins U-2 program and in July of 1956 they begin flying over USSR.
Eisenhower's Nuclear stragey.
-"Massive Retaliation"
-saw they were cheaper
-supported idea of getting ride of nuclear weapons if it was 100% proved.
-Trying to never fight a war.
Seen as inflexable - Eisenhower did not budge from "any way can turn nuclear"-> avoid all wars.
Eisenhower's reaction to Sputnik.
Oct. 1957- Sputnik is launched and new method of delivery is begun.
Eisenhower responds with Intercontintal Ballistic Missile Program (ICBM) being pushed. Intermedicate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM) put in Europe.
1958 first ICBM is launched and Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile(SLBM) are created. By 1960 we are ahead.
Richard Betts and the Policy option to meet threats posed by weapons of mass destruction.
Counterperliferation-don't let thses get into enemy's hands.
Deterence-Deter countries from getting them.
Pre-emption-go in and take it from them.
Civil Defense- is needed no matter what. People need to know what to do but they are alarmed easily.
Eisenhower and the rold of the U-2 program.
The U-2 program came out of the soviets rejection of the Open-skies program. It was used to fly high above gun range and spy on other countries. In May 1960 Gary Power's U-2 was shot down. He was put on trial but the flights showed the soviets true capabilities. Soviets came out and claimed what they had, but we didn't call their bluff, for 3 reasons.
1) We weren't sure how they would react
2) Afraid that we blow our connections
3) Knowing was enough
Concept of foreign policy.
Output of states in the internationalist system consisting of a set of decesions made by governing authorities to realize a states international goals.
4 Categories of foreign policy decision-making.
1) Core-objectives-those objectives that must be achieved at all times.
2) Long-range objectives- what role should a state play in the internationalist sytem
3) middle range objectives-economic goals, social policies, & health policies
4) short-range objectives- crisis policy
Determinants of foreign policy; levels of analysis approach.
1) Systemic Restraints on Foreign Policy.
-Geo-Politics-deals w/how geography influences foreign policy.
-Polarity in the system-dealing w/different actors
2) State & Societal Restrants on FP
-military capabilites
-level of economic development-gdp
-type of gov't
-militancy of state religion-islam
3)individual restrants on FP
-Psychological mind-set of leader
Presdential Doctrines.
--Truman (Greece)- Support free people who are resisting armed minorities or outside pressure.
--Eisenhower (Suez Crisis)- Middle East is vital to US national security
--Johnson (Cuba)- Don't allow communist government in the Western Hemisphere.
--Nixon (Vietnam)- US allies should bear a greater share of the burden for their own defense.
--Carter (Iran)-Protect its interests in the Persian Gulf.
--Reagan (Afghanistan&Nigeragu)- support for anticommunist insurgents who try to overthrow Soviet support gov'ts
--Clinton (Democratic Peace Thesis)- Seek the enlargement of peaceful liberal community of democratic states
--Bush (Sept. 11)-States that harbor terrorists are just as guility and use its power to penalize the guilty.
Berlin Blockade.
Germany & Berlin split in 4 (Soviets, US, Britian, & France). However Berlin located in Soviet area. April 1948 Soviets cut of access to West Berlin. Every 60 seconds supplies are dropped form the air, this raises morale. Soviets eventually back down by May 1949.
Founding of NATO.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It came out of the Berlin Blockade. US security would depend on security of Europe, Soviets could move from eastern to western Europe then possibly US, & Marshall Plan didn't fully give protection to security. Article 5 said if one country is attacked all are attacked.