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50 Cards in this Set

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An organized group of individuals sharing common objectives who actively attempt to influence policymakers.
Interest Groups
An organization or individual who attempts to influence legislation and the administrative decisions of government.
Lobbyist
The difficulty interest groups face in recruiting members when the benefits they achieve can be gained without joining the group.
Free Rider Problem
A reason or motive having to do with the desire to associate with others and to share with others a particular interest or hobby.
Solidary Benefits
A reason or motive having to do with economic benefits or opportunities
Material Benefits
A reason for supporting or participating in the activities of a group that is based on agreement with the goals of the group.
Purposive Benefits
Includes business, agriculture, labor unions and their members, government workers, and professionals.
Economic Interest Groups
The best interests of the overall community; The national good, rather than the narrow interests of a particular group.
Public Interest
Have simple and straightforward goals and because their members tend to care intensely about the issues.
Single Interest Groups
An interest group activity that involves interaction with government officials to further the group's goals
Direct Technique
A strategy employed by interest groups that uses third parties to influence government officials.
Indirect Technique
Forming a coalition with other groups concerned about the same legislation.
Building Alliances
Focus on the legislators' campaign needs.
Campaign Assistance
The use of public relations techniques to create favorable public opinion toward an interest group, industry, or corporation.
Climate Control
A form of pressure or protest -- an organized refusal to purchase a particular product or deal with a particular business.
Boycott
A group of political activists who organize to win elections, operate the government, and determine public policy.
Political Party
A group or bloc in a legislature or political party acting in pursuit of some special interest or position.
Faction
Those members of the general public who identify with a political party or who express a preference for one party over another.
Party-in-the-electorate
The formal structure and leadership of a political party, including election committees, local, state, and national executives, and paid professional staff.
Party Organization
All of the elected and appointed officials who identify with a political party.
Party-in-government
Rewarding faithful party workers and followers with government employment and contracts.
Patronage
A situation in which one major political party controls the presidency and the other controls the chambers of Congress or in which one party controls a state governship and the other controls the state legislature.
Divided Government
Voting for candidates of 2 or more parties for different offices.
Ticket Splitting
A political party other than the 2 major political parties.
Third Party
A new party formed by a dissident faction within a major political party.
Splinter Party
A process in which a substantial group of voters switches party allegiance, producing a long term change in the political landscape.
Realignment
A decline in party loyalties that reduces long-term party commitment.
Dealignment
A court rule bearing on subsequent legal decisions in similar cases.
Precedent
Judge-made law. Decisions were applied to similar situations and gradually became common in the nation.
Common Law
To stand on decided cases; The judicial policy of following precedents established by past decisions.
Stare Decisis
A question that has to do with the U.S. Constitution, Acts of Congress, or treaties.
Federal Question
The authority of a court to decide certain cases.
Jurisdiction
Exists when a court's authority to hear cases is not significantly restricted.
General Jurisdiction
A court having jurisdiction to review cases and issues that were originally tried to lower courts.
Appellate Court
An order issued by a higher court to a lower court to send up the record of a case for review.
Writ for Certiorari
A U.S. Supreme Court procedure by which 4 justices must vote to grant a petition for review if a case is to come before the full court.
Rule of Four
The verbal agreements presented in person by attorneys to an appellate court.
Oral Arguments
To declare that a court ruling is valid and must stand.
Affirm
To annul or make void a court ruling or account of some error irregularity.
Reverse
To send a case back to the court that originally heard it.
Remand
A doctrine holding that the Supreme Court should take an active role by using its powers to check the activities of governmental bodies when those bodies exceed their authority.
Judicial Activism
A doctrine holding that the Supreme Court should defer to the decision made by the elected representatives of the people in the legislative and executive branches.
Judicial Restraint
A judicial philosophy that looks to the "letter of the law" when interpreting the Constitution or a particular statute.
Strict Constitution
A judicial philosophy that looks to the context and purpose of a law when making an interpretation.
Broad Constitution
A court opinion or determination on which all judges agree.
Unanimous Opinion
A court opinion reflecting the views of the majority of the judges.
Majority Opinion
A separate opinion prepared by a judge who supports the decision of the majority of the court but who wants to make or clarify a particular point or to voice disapproval of the grounds on which the decision was made.
Concurring Opinion
A separate opinion in which a judge dissents from the conclusion reached by the majority on the court and expounds his or her own views about the case.
Dissenting Opinion
Try to percolate from the bottom (public)
Grassroots Efforts
Take your name, e-mail, etc. and send our calls and e-mails for you.
Astroturf Lobbying