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69 Cards in this Set

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Henry Demarest Lloyd...
assailed the Standard Oil Company in 1894 with his book Wealth Against Commonwealth.
Jacob A. Riis...
...shocked middle-class Americans in 1890 with How the Other Half Lives which described the dark and dirty slums of New York.
Lincoln Steffens...
in 1902 launched a series of articles in McClure's titled "The Shame of the Cities" which unmasked the corrupt alliance between big business and municipal government.
Ida M. Tarbell...
published a devastating but factual depiction of the Standard Oil Company.
David G. Phillips...
published a series, "The Treason of the Senate" in Cosmopolitan that charged that 75 of the 90 senators did not represent the people but they rather represented railroads and trusts.
Ray Stannard...
wrote Following the Color Line (1908), exposing the suppression of America's blacks.
John Spargo...
wrote of the abuses of child labor in The Bitter Cry of the Children (1906).
Describe the progressive movement's constituents and goals.
Progressive reformers were mainly middle-class men and women.

The progressives sought 2 goals: to use state power to control the trusts; and to stem the socialist threat by generally improving the common person's conditions of life and labor. Progressives wanted to regain the power that had slipped from the hands of the people into those of the "interests."
What was "initiative"?
Voters could directly propose legislation themselves, thus bypassing the boss-sought state legislatures.
What was "referendum"?
Referendum would place laws on ballots for final approval by the people.
What was "recall"?
Recall would enable the voters to remove faithless corrupt officials.
What did the 17th Amendment entail?
It established the direct election of U.S. senators.
Robert M. La Follette...
was the governor of Wisconsin and significant figure of the progressive era, taking considerable control from the corrupt corporations and returning it to the people.
Hiram W. Johnson...
Governor of California, ______________ helped to break the dominant grip of the Southern Pacific Railroad on California politics in 1910.
Settlement houses...
exposed middle-class women to poverty, political corruption, and intolerable working and living conditions.
Florence Kelley...
took control of the National Consumers League in 1899 and mobilized female consumers to pressure for laws safeguarding women and children in the workplace.
"Square Deal"
Roosevelt's plan, consisted of 3 parts: control of the corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources.
George F. Baer
In 1902, coal miners in Pennsylvania went on strike and demanded a 20% raise in pay and a workday decrease from 10 hours to 9 hours. When mine spokesman, ______ refused to negotiate, President Roosevelt stepped in a threatened to operate the mines with federal troops. A deal was struck in which the miners received a 10% pay raise and an hour workday reduction.
Department of Commerce
Congress, aware of the increasing hostilities between capital and labor, created the _______________ in 1903.
Elkins Act
In 1903, Congress passed the ________, which allowed for heavy fines to be placed on railroads that gave rebates and on the shippers that accepted them. (Railroad companies would offer rebates as incentives for companies to use their rail lines.)
Congress passed the _________ of 1906, restricting free passes and expanding the Interstate Commerce Commission to extend to include express companies, sleeping-car companies, and pipelines.
Hepburn Act
Rewards offered to companies allowing an allotted number of free shipments; given to companies to encourage future business.
Free passes
In 1902, President Roosevelt challenged the ________________, a railroad trust company that sought to achieve a monopoly of the railroads in the Northwest. The Supreme Court upheld the President and the trust was forced to be dissolved.
Northern Securities Company
After botulism was found in American meats, foreign governments threatened to ban all American meat imports. Backed by the public, President Roosevelt passed the ______________ of 1906. The act stated that the preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection.
Meat Inspection Act
The ______________ of 1906 was designed to prevent the and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals.
Pure Food and Drug Act
The first step towards conservation came with the ______________ of 1887, under which the federal government sold dry land cheaply on the condition that the purchaser would irrigate the soil within 3 years.
Desert Land Act
the ______________of 1891 authorized the president to set aside public forests as national parks and other reserves.
Forest Reserve Act
The ______________distributed federal land to the states on the condition that it be irrigated and settled.
Carey Act of 1894
______________ authorized the federal government to collect money from the sale of public lands in western states and then use these funds for the development of irrigation projects.
Newlands Act of 1902
______________ was elected as president in 1904.
Theodore Roosevelt
The ______________ in 1908 which authorized national banks to issue emergency currency backed by various kinds of collateral.
Aldrich-Vreeland Act
For the election of 1908, the Republican Party chose ______________, secretary of war to Theodore Roosevelt. The Democratic Party chose ______________.
William Howard Taft, William Jennings Bryan
______________ won the election of 1908.
William Howard Taft
In 1911, the Supreme Court ordered the dissolution of ______________, stating that it violated the ______________.
the Standard Oil Company, Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890
In 1911, the Courts handed down its ______________; a doctrine that stated that only those trusts that unreasonably restrained trade were illegal.
"rule of reason"
The ______________ placed a high tariff on many imports.
Payne-Aldrich Bill
When Secretary of the Interior Richard Ballinger opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska to corporate development, he was criticized by chief of the Agriculture Department's Division of Forestry, Gifford Pinchot. When Taft dismissed Pinchot, much protest arose from conservationists.
The Ballinger-Pinchot quarrel
In 1911, the National Progressive Republican League was formed with ______________as its leading candidate for the Republican presidential nomination.
La Follette
______________ favored small enterprise, entrepreneurship, and the free functioning of unregulated and unmonopolized markets.
Wilson's New Freedom
______________: the tariff, the banks, and the trusts.
"the triple wall of privilege"
Wilson called a special meeting of Congress in 1913 to address the tariff. He convinced Congress to pass the ______________, which significantly reduced the tariff rates.
Underwood Tariff Bill
Under authority from the 16th Amendment, Congress also enacted a ______________.
graduated income tax
In 1913, President Wilson signed the ______________.
Federal Reserve Act
______________authorized a presidentially-appointed commission to oversee industries engaged in interstate commerce, such as the meatpackers.
The Federal Trade Commission Act
______________ lengthened the Sherman Act's list of business practices that were deemed objectionable.
The Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914
The ______________made loans available to farmers at low rates of interest.
Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916
______________authorized loans on the security of staple crops.
The Warehouse Act of 1916
______________ benefited sailors by requiring decent treatment and a living wage on American ships.
The La Follette Seamen's Act of 1915
______________ gave assistance to federal civil-service employees during periods of disability.
The Workingmen's Compensation Act of 1916
In 1916, the president approved an act restricting ______________ on products flowing into interstate commerce.
child labor
The ______________ established an 8-hour work day for all employees on trains in interstate commerce.
Adamson Act of 1916
Wilson nominated for the Supreme Court reformer ______________, the first Jew to be a Supreme Court justice.
Louis D. Brandeis
Congress in 1914 repealed the ______________, which had exempted American coastal shipping from tolls
Panama Canal Tolls Act of 1912
______________ granted the Philippines territorial status and promised independence as soon as a stable government could be established.
The Jones Act in 1916
When political turmoil broke out in _______ in 1915, Wilson dispatched marines to protect American lives and property.
Haiti
In 1917, Wilson purchased the ______________ from Denmark.
Virgin Islands
In 1913, the Mexican revolution took an ugly turn when the president was murdered and replaced by ______________.
General Victoriano Huerta
Just as war seemed imminent with ______________intervened and pressured Huerta to step down.
Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, and Chile
______________ became the president of Mexico
Venustiano Carranza
______________, rival to President Carranza, attempted to provoke a war between Mexico and the U.S by killing Americans.
Francisco Villa
______________ broke up Villa's band of outlaws.
General John J. Perishing
The ______________ consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria.
Central Powers
The ______consisted of France, Britain, Russia, Japan, and Italy.
Allies
______________, the leader of Germany, seemed the embodiment of arrogant autocracy.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
In 1915, several months after Germany started to use submarines in the war, one of Germany's submarines sunk the British liner ______________, killing 128 Americans.
Lusitania
When Germany sunk another British liner, the ______, in 1915, Berlin agreed to not sink unarmed passenger ships without warning. Germany continued to sink innocent ships as apparent when one of its submarines sank a French passenger steamer, the ______________.
Arabic, Sussex
______________: the United States would have to persuade the Allies to modify what Berlin regarded as their illegal blockade.
Sussex pledge
The Republicans nominated Supreme Court justice ______________ for 1916.
Charles Evans Hughes
______________ won the election of 1916.
Woodrow Wilson