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27 Cards in this Set

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Articles of Confederation
Created during the Revolution to unify colonies
Writers were leery of powerful central government
Each state retained its sovereignty, freedom and independence
Congress to provide for national defense but not power to do so
Congress was not allowed to interfere with states commerce
Framers Goals
Stronger National Gov't
Preserve states as viable governments
Preserve liberties through checks and balances
based on popular soverignty
Restricted in uses of power
Give the people a voice3 in government
Virginia Plan
provided that states would have numberical representation in Congress in proportion to their populations or tax contributions.
New Jersy Plan
called for a stronger national gov't with power to tax and regulate commerce among states
Great Compromise
bicameral congress - Hourse of Representatives would be apportioned among the states on basis of population and the Senate on the basis of equal number of votes (2) per state
Bill of Rights
Protection of individual civil liberties, added later - the First 10 amendments
Limited Government
gov't that is subject to strict limits on its lawful uses of powers and hence on its ability to deprive people their liberty
Checks and Balances
the elaborate system of divided spheres of authority provided by the US constitution as a means of controlling the power of government. Separation of powers among the branches of the national government, federalism, and the different methods of selecting national officers are all part of this system
Separation of Powers
way to check power with power by dividing the authority of government so that no single institution could exercise great power without the agreement of other institutions.
Writs of habeas corpus
"free to the bocy" mandate requiring into the lawfulness of the restraint of a person imprisoned or detained in anothers custody.
Ex post facto laws
after the fact, ordinarily used in reference to constitutional prohibition on ex post facto laws.
Judicial Review
the power of courts to decide whether a governmental official or institution has acted within the limits of the Constitution and, if not, to declare its action null and void. Marbury vs Madison
Limited Popular Rule
House of Reps - Direct pop election
Senators - appointed by legislatures
Presidents - elected by Electoral College
Judges - nominated by President and confirmed by Senate
Trustees
idea that elected reps arae obligated to act in accordance with their own consciences concerning which policies are in the best interest of the public
Delegates
the idea of elected reps as being obligated to carry out the expressed wishes of the electorate
Enumerated Powers
powers specifically granted to Congress. These powers include taxation, regulation of commerce and authorty to provide for national defense
Implied Powers
Powers claimed by Congress which are not specifically enumerated in the Constitution but are implied
Reserved Powers
the powers granted to the states under the 10th Amendment. Powers not delegated to the US by the Constitution are reserved for the Statets or to other people
Sovereignty
the ultimate authority to govern within a certain geographical area.
Federalism
a governmental system in which authority is divided between two sovereign levels of government: national or regional.
Supremacy Clause
national law supreme over state law when the natinal government is acting within its constitutional limits
McCulloch vs. Maryland
established that the constiution grants to Congress implied powers used in the practical function of the enumerated powers
State actio nmayh no impede constitutional excercises by the Fed Govnt.
Devolution
the passing down of authority from the national government to states and localiteis
Dueal Federalism
a doctrine based on the idea that a precise separation of national power and state power is both possible and desireable
Cooperative Federalism
the situation in which the national, state and local levels work together to solve problems
- Jointly funded
- Jointly administered
- Jointly determined
Fiscal Federalism
the expenditure of federal funds on programs run in part through state and local governments
Grants - in - Aid
cash payments from the federal government to states and localities for programs which they administer
- Block Grants
- Categorical Grants