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60 Cards in this Set

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After War of 1812, US was feeling confident. What form did this confidence take?
nationalism-national pride and loyalty
political harmony-everybody got along
What was the era after the War of 1812 called?
Market revolution
What party opposed (were against) the War of 1812?
Federalist Party
3 agreements under President Monroe that helped to secure the nation's borders were?
Development of US-Canadian border
Great Britain and US sharing the Oregon Country
Agreement with Spain about boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase and giving Florida to the US
What reports worried US regarding France and Spain?
France was going to help Spain conquer the Latin American countries
What was the Monroe Doctrine?
US would think that any attempt by Europe to establish new or revive old colonies in the US as dangerous to the US
How the market and industrial revoution affect life in the north.
Regional economic differences heightened the existing social and political tensions between the North and the South. Support for abolistion increased among northerners.
What national measures were being proposed by 1815?
National measures to improve
weak financial system
transportation problems
expense of moving goods and troops
What were the 3 aspects to Henry' Clay's American System?
1) Re-creation of a ntiaonl bank to provide for a sound currency (money system) and greater government control over finances.

2) A protective tariff to make it more expensive to import goods than to make them in US (to increase manufacturing.

3) Develop a national transportation system to unite northern, western, and southern manufacturers, planters, farmers with selling their goods.
What technological advances advanced the transportation revolution?
steam powered locomotives
railroads developed
What factors led to an increased demand for slaves in the South? How did slave laborers attempt to shape their lives?
There was a demand for slaves to work on the plantations.
There was an increase in cotton production so they needed more workers. Slave laborers attempted to shape their lives by setting tight work schedules and using either rewards or violence to get the slaves to work.
What wer some of the reforms people advocated to reduce social problems such as crime and poverty?
The temperance movement (limiting consumption of alcohol)
prohibition
rehabilitation
education
Impact of Erie Canal on moving goods between Buffalo and New York City
It encouraged and started canal projects in other states.
New, cheaper and faster transportation had what impact on the nation's economy?
increased profits for farmers, and others and led to the Industrial Revolution
What new social divisions arose as a result of the market and industrial revolutions?
merchants, bankers and manufacturers- upper class
the poor
the middle class- farmers artisans, shopkeepers, ministers and lawyers
What occupations were considered part of the Middle Class?
farmers, artisans, shopkeepers, ministers and lawyers
How did the "market revolution" change the way farmers and manufacturers did business?
farmers hired laborers and produced large cash crops to sell in the US and in other countries.

Manufacturers divided jobs and created machines to produce more products.
Describe how the work environment changed?
Factories started hiring individuals rather than families working together, women and children were often hired because they could be paid less
Work conditions worsened and caused labor unions to rise up
What did Francis Cabot Lowell's factory system accomplish?
cut costs and increased output by using machines under one roof to perform every step of manufacturing.
By 1832, what percentage of the work force in the New England factories were children? Describe the working conditions?
Two out of five workers were children (40%) the children worked late into the night and were kept awake by water being splashed into their faces.
Waht was the primanry cause of the political conflict in 1819?
Political conflict
more money lent by banks than they really had
What did owners do in order to gain greater profits? What did many workers do in response?
Owners increased working hours, sped up production and cut wages to gain greater profits. In response workers organized labor unions to fight for reforms such as the 10 hour workday
What was the controversy that led to the Missouri Compromise..what type of compromise was reached?
agreement that admitted Missouri as a slave sate and Maine as a free state to maintain the congressional balance of slave states and free states.
Also, slavery was banned in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase north of the latitude 36 detgrees 30
What was the primary demand of the workers leading the strikes?
THe primary demand of the strikes were to protest low wages or to avoid wage reductions.
Why did the worker's protests have little success?
The workers had little success because so many people were looking for jobs that owners would just hire others for the positions.
From what country were the largest number of immigrants? The second largest group? What drove the first group from their homeland? What drove the second group?
The largest group came from Ireland and were driven by poverty, hunger and mistreatment from the British. The second largest group came from Germany they were driven to America because they were searching for religous freedom or economic opportunities.
Explain the relationship between the doctrine of nullification and the 1828 tariff. What did South Carolia threaten to do if they were satisfied with the agreement?
1828 tariff was double the 1816 tariff.
Southern planters were afraid that Britain would not buy cotton.
Accused Congress of favoring northern manufacturers.

doctrine of nullification said states did not have to honor the Congress's rule. South Caroline did not honor it and threatened to leave the Union.

Cabot talked Congress into lowering the tariff (tax) so everyone was happy.
What bothered the native born Americans about the immigrants?
The Americans were troubled by the immigrants customs and disapproved of clannishness of the Germans.
What was Jackson's Indian Policy?
Favored opening Indian lands for white settlement.
Moved Indians to the west "for their own protection."
Immigrants from what country began to settle in the midwest?
Germans, Swiss, Scandinavians and the Dutch settled in the Midwest
What did Jackson mean by the statement the Indians were "barriers to waves of populationa and civilization?"
White farmers and speculators (land buyers) wanted the good land in the East that the Indians owned. Moving the Indians to the west meant this land was free for farming and people to buy.
Describe the makeup of southern society in terms of the social ladder?
Southern society was made up of slave-owning planters who dominated society. Under them were people called yeoman farmers who grew their own food and raised some crops. The lowest level on the ladder were the poorest whites who farmed the least fertile soil.
When Jacked promised eastern lndians land for as long as the grass grows or the water runs, what did he mean?
This was his way of fooling the Indians into moving out west.
How did the Native Americans respond to Jackson's proposals?
The Native Americans went to Court to get their land back.
Cork ruled in their favor (in Georgia), but they were forced to move outwest anyway because Georgia government took their land.
What group made up the largest section of the population in the south? What percent of all slave owners owned 50 or more slaves?
The largest section of the population were non slave holding whites. Only 3% of all slave owners owned 50 or more slaves.
What two inventions changed the production of cotton?
New weaving machines
Cotton gin
What was the Trail of Tears? Why do you think it was called that?
The Trail of Tears was when 4000 Cherokees died on the 800 mile trip from Georgia to the Indian Territory in 1838.
It was called the Trail of Tears because it was so sad that so many died and also because they were forced to leave their land.
What was Jackson's criticism of the Second Bank of the US?
Jackson considered the bank a monopoly that helped the rich at the public's expense
Why did the demand for slaves grow so fast between 1820 and 1860? By what percent did the number of slaves grow?
Cotton production increased due to the inventions of weaving machines and the cotton gin causing the demand for slaves to grow from 1.5 million to 4 million. The percentage of growth was about 266%.
What conditions led to the Panics of 1819 and 1837?
1819-state banks loaned more money than they had

1837-Jackson stopped the depositing of federal monies into the Second Bank of the United States.
This led to inflation.
When was the Monroe Doctrine written?
December 2, 1823
Describe the difference between an overseer and a driver?
An overseer was usually the planters son who managed the slaves. A driver was usually a slave who assisted the overseer by making sure the other slaves worked.
What was the most common form of punishment for slaves? What was the worst threat for slaves?
Whippping was the most common form of punishment, the worst threat was that of being sold downriver and being seperated from family and loved ones.
Who did Monroe hope would read this document?
Russia and Great Britain leaders
What were some of the ways that slaves resisted through individual actions?
Slaves often ran away, faked illnesses or slowed their work pace. They also damaged tools to disrupt the routine.
What does the Monroe Doctrine say on the US intervening in the affairs of other countries?
Only when the rights of the US are invaded or affected by affairs of other countries
Describe the Underground Railroad?
The underground railroad was a way for slaves to escape, they were hidden in attics or haylofts by day and transported by conductors to the next safe house at night.
What is the "Holy Alliance?"
the political system of the allied powers
Who was Dorethea Dix and what did she report on?
Dorthea Dix reported on the treatment of the mentally ill,that they were mistreated and kept in locked conditions. She convinced people that they need to rehabilitate the mentally ill.
What were the utopians trying to create?
They were trying to create communities that were organized around family life , work and property ownership in order to create an ideal society.
What was the temperance movement? What social problems were blamed on alcohol consumption?
The temperance movement tried to limit the consupmtion of alcohol. All social problems were blamed on the consumption of alcohol including mental illness and poverty.
Why did some farming and working class families oppose public education? Why did the Catholics oppose it?
Many farmers relied on their children as workers and therfore opposed the idea of them attending schools. The Catholics believed that public education was a means of spreading Protestant beliefs and so they were concerned about what their children would be taught.
David Walker
wrote "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World"
Harriet Tubman
An escaped slave who is one of the most famous "conductors" of the Underground Railroad
Fredrick Douglas
a fugitive slave who was also a writer. Wrote his autobiography "Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglas"
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Led women in a movement to end discrimination. Her efforts led to the first Women's right convention
Sojourner Truth
A former slave who travelled through New England preaching abolition and about women's rights.
Horace Mann
Led the public education reform and became the first secertary of education. He united local school districts into a state wide system.
What was the basis for much of the opposition to the anti-slavery cause?
The basis for the Anti Slavery cause was the economic differences between the North and the South.
What groups of women felt left out of the grievances voiced at the Seneca Falls convention?
African American women and white working class women felt left out of the grievences voiced at the convention.