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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Indian Orgins (5 major periods)
Oldest indian groups dat to 7000 bc?
-Largly hunting and gathering
-large animals in North America (wooly mamoths, gient camel)
Archaic Indians 7000-1000 BC
-villages, settlements, hunting-gathering
-there are still bison, deer
-Gender division of Labor
1000 BC-tracable evidence
-Plant domestication
------corn, squashed, beans
------all three grown together, plants fertilize each other
------leads to bigger settlements
500 BC-Domesticated plants north of rio grande
500 AD-Indians in North America rely on domesticated plants
Indian Culture
Religion-Polytheism, Animism, Land is Powerful
Writing-Examples in Central and South America
Language-375 different language groups in Americas
-many indian tribes don't understand each other
-tribes, raiding parties, bands
-little loss of life (kidnapping, torture)
Hohokam 1000AD
Anasazi 1000ADish
-environmental problems
-Canyons-move to-mesas
-Skeletons reveal violence
-breakdown to several tribes (Hopi, Zuni, Pueblo)
Mound Builders-900-1000AD
Mound Builders
-largest settlement Cahokia (near st. louis)
-Possible mound uses (temples, burial)
-very religious
-also practiced human sacrifice
Cahokia (1100)
-10,000-15,000 people (bigger than London at time)
-maxed out surrounding area (deforestation)
-wasn't able to survive from droughts (creeks, chicksaws)
Iroquis League (shared Government) (1100s)
Aztek-mexico (1428)
Iroquis League
-Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk
-Continuous, one of the longest serving deliberate bodies in the world
-Not that old when Columbus showed up
-Justified empire on grounds of sun god
-----always needed to be refreshed through human sacrifice
-when spanish showed up, cleaner city then they had ever seen
Inka (1300s)
-one of the largest empires in world
-almost all landforms
-very developed government, beuracracy
-almost entire western coast of South America
-fairly peaceful, welcoming
-practicing Canibalism
-also in carribean
-Steel/have metals, valued for shinyness and reflective qualities
-guns/no guns
-wheel/wheel as toys
-navigation skills/canoes, rafts
-domesticated animals/animals sacred
-more domesticated crops
Direct Results of European Landing
-Europeans are Carrying diseases
---people become immune over time
---natives suseptible (1000s of people dying)
---one of keys to European success
---smallpox, measles, typhoid
-domesticated animals undermine indian sttlements
----rats eat grain supplies
-Columbian Exchange
----maze, potatoes
----indians are quick to use horses
---1492-50 million indians
---1600-much fewer indians=as indians die out, europeans turn to black slaves
New Spain 1492
-Columbus not popullar
-southern part of spain
---last muslim holdout defreated
-Ferdenad & Isabella
-Surplus $ to give to Columbus
Period of Reniesanse
--before reformation (united catholic church)
Spain trying to play catch up w/ portugese
---1488 sailed along africa
---1499 makes it to india
All learned europeans of the time new earch round
----how big is this world? would you sail forever?
----columbus thought world was smaller, get to indies quickly, HE WAS WRONG!
EARLY Spanish Settlements
-adelantado system---Contracts for "New World"
-----mostly private enterprisers for profit
Cortez---failed warrior, begins in hispaniola
Cortez In Mexico
-Goes into Mexico against the Gov't Wishes
----with private army
----wins some battles, but is losing men
-Tribes figure out that spaniards offer an oppertunity to be freed from aztecs
-----lead him to Aztec Capital (tenochtitlan)
1. Capture king (montezuma)
---offer the aztecs an option to ransom him (they offer a room of gold)
---Ends up being strangled by spanierds
2. Azteks counter-attack
----drive the spanish out
3. Smallpox breaks out
---kills aztec general, many more
4. Cortez takes command for good
---becomes the ruler of Mexico
---the crown forces him to return to spain (richest man alive)
Spain now has largest Empire in History of World
-makes other nations nervous
-extract over 181 tons of silver
-uses wealth poorly
-----mlitary exdepitions that fail (spanish armada)
-----little into infostruture
-crown puts 2 viceroys into place
----new spain
Spanish colonies in 1628
330 towns
Spanish Colonies 1565, 1680
1565-st augustine florida
-Coronado (on leading edge)
---7 cities of Gold
---center of region, Mexico City
---very slow population growth
-indian revolt led by pope
-successful for many years
-kill or drive out all spaniards
-largest and most successful indian resistance
-spanish reclaim with Army
-disease plays a role, weapons, etc
-some reform of indiam misstreatment
----Dominican preacher says "indians have souls"
-Las Casas listens
----gives up land, becomes priest works to defend and protect
-Fansiscans follow suite
---experience synchronization
----doing deeds without changing basics of beliefs
--they add spanish God to other gods
French Settlements (the beginning)
-Go north- don't find gold, but other valuables
-Frenchmen already establishing relationships with indians
----looking at trades with economic intent
----indians see trade as a process of dipolmacy
---------see french as equals, giving as gifts
---------begin to figure out game, demand more
makes arrangement with Huron tribe
-lots of access to pelts
-traditional enemies with the Iroquois
Champlain and LaSalle's explorations
1609-champlain heads south in war party
-finds large lake in upper New York
-Champlains guns help Huron to suceed
-indians begin demanding guns in trade
-head up St. Lawrence to Montreal
1673-explore mississippi (Marquette)
1682-LaSalle explores Mississippi all the way to gulf
----names territory ater king (Louisiana)
-French have claim to Mississippi and St. Laurence
-build St. Louis and New Orleans
not doing well at getting established families
-founded by loyola (mission to protestants then india, china etc)
-more sensitive to new groups
-Learn culture, fit christianity into it
--early on--baptisms, churches
--hurons have no religious absolutes, agree with jesuits, never really accept it
Iroquire launch huge attach on Huron
-French have lost many allies, begain meeting other tribes near great lakes
----try to find middle ground-no longer superior
----decent relations with allies
Henry VIII (England) and Children
-Break from Rome after reformation
-wants heir, wife hasn't produced
-takes country out of ROman Catholic Church so he can divorce, takes 7 wives
-----3 bear children who will be on throne
-Edward VI (sickly, dies young)
-Mary (catholic, persecutes protestants)
----many flee to geneva, become calvinists
-Elizabeth---protestant, wants to mainatin authority, reinstitutes book of common prayer
-----draws hatred of Louis II-Spain
-Phillip hates Elizabeth
----spain strong, phillip related to Henry's first wife
1585 Spanish Armada
First English Settlement
-Rohanoack NC (outerbanks)
----land good, positive reports, always on edge of loss
----1589-governers and leaders
----1590-settlemwnet deserted-one word etched in tree "indians"
----"the lost colony"
James I (Jamestown VA 1607)
-Much more gritty then Pocahantes-settlers lazy
-2 groups of settlers
-----gentlemen (go over and become rich)
-----people forced over (forced and cajoled into working)
Josh Smith
-Mercenary Soldiar
-forces others to work
-reaches out to indians
---indians decided to give them corn
-captured, brought before indian counsel
-----pocahantes throws herself onto him, saves his life
-from then on, Indians look down on english
-smith succeeds somewhat
-more interested in exploration then establishment
----explores norther coastline
-after he leaves, coloney experiences starving
Sir Thomas Gates
puts in new laws (Dales Code)
Helps coloney to continue
Economic Changes (John Ralph)
-Tobacco-John Ralph
-----can be grown, sold in england
-marries pocahantes
----joins english, converts to Christianity
----takes name "Rebecca"
----travel to england, welcomed by queen
----pocahantes dies from pnumonia in England
Jamestown faces more Indian trouble
-Powhatan dies
-his brother Opechancanough takes over
---hates the english
---1622-leads indians on suprise attack
---kills 347 men, women, etc.
-Neglish wait until harvest time, burn villages, give indians poisened wine
-Opec fights until 1632-then asks for peace
-1644-launches new war, kills 400 settlers
-----he's caputred, brought to jamestwon
-----killed before he can stand trial
Stephen Berkelay/ Nathaniel Bacon
-sent from england to be governer of Virginia
-Decides to remake virginia into a small england
---attractive to 2nd sons, escaped nobels, etc.
-Nathaniel Bacon-Didn't agree with Berkelay
---leads rebellion "bacon's rebellion" 1676
-------cousin of Berkelay
-------Rallies men who are left out
-------march to jamestown, push berkelay out
-Gets dysentary and dies, rebellion fizzles
Nobels see themselves leading like "Patriarches"
-indentured servants/slaves do most labor
-slavery---jamestwon 1619 (before pilgrims), fit well into tobacco growth
Not interested in godliness as much as the hierarchy
Self control/control of people beneath you
Starts as a havan for catholics
1634 established by calberts "St. Mary's"
Lord Baltimore
Beginning of the Puritans/Pilgrims
Originate under rule of Queen Elizabeth
---encouraging authority of Anglican Church
---groups want more reformation
--------middle-lower class "LEAVE ENGLAND!" -seperatists become pilgrims
--------ALL social segments "Purify Church of England" many in southern england, university of Caimbridge
-Pilgrims leave 1620
-Puritans 1630 (Great Migration!)
William Brewster
William Bradford
Elder William Brewster
---want to be free of persecution-1608 move to netherlands
------hard labor, worried children picking up dutch ways
---1620 leave abroard mayflower
------gets blown off course to land not given to them
1st Winter "starving time"
---1/3 of people die of sickness
---at times fewer then 10 men able, burying dead @ night
---spring-begin planting, healthier
-Indian man walks into colony and asks for beer
name Squanto, english learn to plant maze
Hold first thanksgiving, work with chief massasoit
---thanksgiving to God, rejoicing in harvest
Governed for many years by william bradford
----most famous writings "of plymouth plantaiont
----1691 mass. bay combines with plymouth to form Mass. Colong
Puritan's reasons for leaving
Getting out because of persecution
going to create pure Christian culture
William Laud-openly hostile to puritans in England
-political reasons--charles wants absolute monarchy
-economics reasons-england lacks economic oppertunities
What the Puritan's are about
-Individuals spiritual state, personal need
-Saint Augustine
-Emotional and covental relationships wiht God
-want to see how faith is brought into world
-very little government & church structure
creat congregational churches
town covenents
Massachusetts theological challenges
Roger Williams
---very intense, exact, demanding
---wanted to limit church
------ended up with a church of 2
---very concerned with purity
---the bloody tenent of persecution
----1634 forced out of bay colony
----------went to Rhode Island, founded providence
---------------becomes a havan for unorthodox people, "Rouges Island"
-Ann Hutchinson
----1637-the Anti-nomian controversy
-against law, believed only restraint spirit
-believed only one minister taught things properly
-believes there are requirements for Christians after salvation
-1638-goes to Rhode Island then long Island
----ends up being killed by indians
Mass indian challenges
1637-Pequad war
----launch attack, settlers respond harshly, end up wipin gout pequad
(last main uprising)
1675-6-King Phillips war
-gathers many indian tribes, launch suprise attacks, very bloody war
-more americans (by percentage) killed then in any other war
1676-Puritans Rally, crush indian resistance (Catch and Kill Phillip)
Piety Challenges
-can't become member of church without "mark of grace"
-can't be full member of society w/o church
1. halfway covenent-1662
----non-members can still baptise children
2. Jeremiad-Dramatic sermons to induse repentence-1660's continues
1692-Salem Witch Trials
-there was some fortune telling going on (AT LEAST!)
-the judges chage standards of evidence
-definetely gross injustice
-under control within a year
-not just women
despite these challenges, Mass Bay is doing well as a whole
New York
Originally explored by Henry Hudson
New Netherland 1626
Very Rowdy Reputation
1664 captured by British 1664
-----governer Peter Scivescent
-----Named for Duke of York
-New Amsterdam becomes "New York city"
-trading post rennamed "Albany"
1670-refuge for those loyal to Charles I
people from england & carribean
-try suger, fails
indigo & rice
-live fast & die yong
-quick slave state, largest in US
Founded by william penn as refuge for quakers
-George Fox
-Believe in the "inner light"-holy spirit illuminating hearts, forms arn't needed.
-----no church service, just unformed meeting
-----no pastors or elders
-----debates about how formal doctine should be, how close to the scripture?
-Very wild, enjoyed taunting religious enemies
-challenging legal systems
-challenging social structure
-celebrating simplicity (challenging economic structure)
-very clanish
-hard workers
William Penn
Son of important Admiral
Persecuted in 1660s for being a quaker
wants Penn. to be a refuge for all quakers
founder of Philly "city of brotherly love"
-all groups welcome
-big theme-being peacable
-liberty-some of the first people to oppose slavery
-try to treat indians wells (pay for land, builds goodwill early)
-haven for immigrents
----first diverse colony
-Quakers in government until 1770s
----quakers unable to vote for needed militia
----leave political life
-Founded much later
-founded as buffer against spain
-under leadership of James Ooglthorp
--------1733 found Savannah
--------Lawyers not allowed, liquer, slaves not allowed
-------hard work, not large land holdings
-1751-james turns management back to crown
-1775-18,000 total whites (smallest colonis)
English History (James II, Andros)
James II-comes to throne, catholic, says he will practice religion in private.
-ok because James doesn't have an heir
-impressed by Louis in France, wants to duplicate in england
-Decides to tax the colonie heavily
-sends Andros to colonies into one super colony
The Dominion of New England
Enforces laws already on books, puts new laws into place
tries to void all land titles
Tries to shut down town meetings
especially designed to bug Puritians
Reaction in Colonies
Mass gathers town to rebell, calls in
No taxation under representation as englishmen
minister is arrested
Conn "loses" charter (hidden in old tree) so they cannot turn it over, and preserves liberty
James II continued
1688 Jame's wife "gives birth" to son
-protestants worry about succession of Catholic Kings
-make appeal to William of Orange (prince, netherlands)
----Married to James' daughter
----William comes to England w/army
-----lots of ships
-----james panics, fleed to Ireland
-william and mary enter England, gain throne
Battle of Boyne 1690, william's army beats james'
-james flees to France
3 major reactions to bill of rights
New England-Quick uprising to oppose Andros
-----april 1689-2000 militiamen fill streets of Boston, march and arresst and join Andros
----Draft statement of alligience to new order
New York (much more divided)
----civil conflict around Jacob Leisler
---------between Dutch & English
--------Leisler doesn't want to follow Wm & Mary
-------arressted then executed
Maryland-catholics still backing James II
-protestants arrest catholic governer
-after Golorious revolution, becomes protestant
Long-term effects of Glorious Revolution
---political change-more control over colonies on the administrative level.
---Cultural Change-angelicization-became more like England
----marks the end of the founding of the colonies
Imperial Wars
-All not well in colonies, spain south, French north
King William's War (9 years war)
-louis attacks netherlands, william directs Neth. and english armies
-Building up army requires new taxes
-bank of england founded
-new theory of rule
-----no one tells americans about new change
US results of 9 years war
-try to attack "new france" with colonial armies
-iroquis are threatened, NF attacks them
Queen Anne's War (war of spanish succession)
-Mary & william replaced by anne
-renews war with french
----battle at Blenheim
Us results of Queen Anne's War
-army of carolinians try to attack saint augustine
-attack nova scotia
-indian raids
-----deerfield mass
---------capture minister and family, kidnapp to NF
War of Jenkins' Ear
English sea captain sailing into spanish waters, accussed and arrested for smuggling
-Ear chopped off as punishment
-ear brought to parliament, outraged, declare war
King Georges War (war of austrian succession) results in US
-new englanders built big army, attack biggest canadian for, louisbourg (mouth of st. lawrence)
-english give it back during peace treaties
Ultimate results of imperial wars
1. War is an ongoing reality for colonies
2. Britain has a more "stable" transatlantic empire
3. Empire is protected because of thier ties between the fiscal and military
1st Stage of the Great Awakening
People getting religious convictions and joining churches
-because ministers can now talk to each other, things spread
-Encompasses all colonies
Weslyn movement
John Wesley
-grows up trying to be devout, in club for good works at Oxford
-doesn't feel truly saved
-goes on misisons trip to Georgia (meets moravians)
-seeks them out in Englad, hears Luther on Romans
-Preaches to common people, big on small group classes
-Methodists in England send missionaries to colonies
2nd stage of the Great Awakening
Middle colonies
----Gilbert Tennent foungs log cabin college which becomes princeton
Southern Colonies
---harder to see, fewer cities
---longer lasting, smaller scale
---produces large growth of baptists, gospel is going to slaves
-------samual Davies ministers to slaves, problems arise as new believers want to attend churched, seperate worship is encouraged
George Whitefield
Very close connections to Wesleys
huge success when he comes in 1740s
preaches for 2 decades
VERY famous
preaches until 70s in england and colonies
still preaching when he died 1770
Resistance to the Great Awakening
Anglicans don't condone Whitfield
-james Davenport
----makes huge, broad claims (such as one that says other ministers are not saved) and holds public book burning ceremony
Charles Chauncy
-----says emotion, excitement not true spirituality
-----seasonable thoughts-attacks awakening
New Lights vs Old Light
Jonathen Edwards
-puritan minister
-grandfather was solomon stoddard
-Wrote many famous sermons
-went to preach to indians
ended up just writing
became president of Princeton
dies of smallpox after 1 year
Results of Awakening
1. Produced distinctive style of Christianity, evangelicalism- centers on new birth
2. religious belief is about the individual, not community
----edwards would be skeptical of this breakdown
3. The breakdown of authority stuctures
4. Begins to build ties between teh colonies
-----before, colonies have more to do with england then each other
Benjamin Franklin
-very individualistic
-pull yourself up by your own bootstraps
-all about what you're doing

Born in boston
raised under puritan minister
writes public letters to local newspaper under alias Silance Do-good
Apprenticed to brother
runs to philly
learns craft of printer
retires, devouts himself to reading and inventions
-----experimenting with electricity, bifocals
-doesn't stop religion, but does temper it
-influences franklin
-many in colonies would say enlightened thought fits in with religious beliefs