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77 Cards in this Set

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Truman Doctrine
president truman's program for post-WWII aid to european countries especially greece and turkey which were threatened most by communism
Ho Chi Minh
a communist nationalist who lead the broad-based coalition, Vietminh. when vietnam was divided he became leader of the north and US feared he would take over all of vietnam and convert it to communism. many times throughout the war johnson halted bombing of north korea to propose peace to ho chi minh but he denied.
Mao Zedong
helped jian jieshi invade china with his communist forces. later in the war he joined up with stalin of the soviet union to keep US from entering/defending their territory of korea. after he and his troops victory against france and conquered lands in asia truman and US felt greatly threatened by communism.
Korean War
conflict began when communist north korea invaded south korea which had been under US control since the end of WWII.
HUAC: House Un-American Activities Committee
formed to investigate subversives in the government; best known investigations were of hollywood celebrities and former state department official alger hiss who was accused of espionage and communist party membership.
Hollywood Ten
ten of hollywood's most successful who were found to have affiliations to communism and refused to answer questions concerning the issue saying that they could not be forced to discuss their political beliefs. at hearings, they were cited for contempt, fired and once released from jail blacklisted - meaning they could never be hired anywhere again.
NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization
a defensive alliance founded by ten western european nations, US and canada to stop soviet expansion in europe.
George Kennan
criticized truman's nuclear attacks on soviet union saying that the only reason soviets were agressive was because of their vulnerability towards western invasion. he agreed that soviets should be contained geographically and politically with the expectation that eventually the union would break apart. he called this the containment doctrine.
Eisenhower Doctrine
a commitment to send military aid and if required, troops to any nation in the middle east that felt threatened by communism.
Joseph McCarthy
he started the suspicion that americans were communists. he accused the democrats of treason during the korean war. eisenhower thought that mccarthy's views were over dramatic but he did eject many government working people that were actually innocent.
NSC-68: National Security Council Memorandum Number 68
stated that soviet union was a threat to civilization itself not only US. in a few years it would be capable of mounting a surprise atomic attack on America. this caused US to increase work on satellites research and development of nuclear weapons, and an army increasing in size.
Fidel Castro
a cuban revolutionist that overthrew the government with intentions to reconstruct cuba's economy and society. he was at first considered a hero but he soon became a dictator. he announced that he was a communist and became allies with the soviet union. US consequently cut off all ties with cuba and began sending spies into the country to overthrow castro.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
sparked by rosa park's arrest, the boycott lasted a year long, protesting segregation on city buses. the boycott was lead by martin luther king.
United Nations
an organization of nations to maintain world peace
NASA
in response to soviet's launch of sputnik congress created the federal agency to coordinate reasearch and administer the space program.
Viet Cong & National Liberation Front
created by northern vietnam this national liberation front was created to wage ware against the south. the north had southerners who were a part of the viet cong as well waging war.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
outlawed discrimination in public accomodations and employment.
George Wallace
exemplified the opposition of desegregation by southern whites. he refused to let blacks into alabama university, until kennedy took charge and enforced their acceptance.
Bob Dylan
famous singer who sang protest songs that appealed to white college students who had become civil rights activists because of its moral purpose and comraderie of the marches.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
hoping to inspire a revolt against castro, the cia sent cuban exiles to invade their homeland. the mission failed.
SNCC: Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee & MFDP: mississippi freedom democratic party
organized the freedom summer project bringing volunteers, many white college students, into mississippi to set up freedom schools for black children, register black voters, and create the MFDP challenging the white-only government. the workers were arrested and beaten raising awareness of the issue.
CORE: Congress of Racial Equality
a civil rights organization known for its freedom rides-bus journeys challenging racial segregation in the south.
SCLC: Southern Christian Leadership Conference
a civil rights organization founded by martin luther king and other civil rights leaders
Warren Court
decided landmark cases such as brown v. board of education (school desegregation) and miranda v. arizona (rights of criminal defendents)
Great Society
a term coined by president johnson in his state of the union address. he proposed legislation to address the problems of voting rights, poverty, diseases, education, immigration, and the environment.
NOW: National Organization for Women
founded by betty friedan and other feminists, the organization pushed for abortion rights and nondiscrimination in the workplace. eventually it became radicalized and lost it's respect
Lee Harvey Oswald
president kennedy's assassin, an unstable soviet sympathizer and champion of castro. he was murdered by jack ruby in retaliation for his crime.
Malcolm X
articulated the nation of islam, the black muslim religion lead by elijah muhammed. he supported integration, nonviolence, preaching armed self defense and freedom for blacks. he was assassinated after breaking apart from the nation of islam.
SDS: Students for a Democratic Society
Tom Hayden & Al Haber
the 2 founded this major liberal organization at the university of michigan
Timothy Leary
a former psychologist at harvard who encouraged drug use (LSD) as a counter culture statement.
Woodstock
during the time of counter culture popularity, a huge concert where young people endulged in drugs, nudity and public sex listening to the music that was popular at the time
Barry Goldwater
wanted to abolish the progressive income tax, sell factories, make social security voluntary, he supported the war. he criticized the government for their lack of control over the civil rights act. america was worried by his disregard for national safety only focusing on the war.
Eugene McCarthy
challenged johnson for the presidential election as an anti-war candidate.
Cesar Chavez & NFWA: National Farm Workers' Association
organized to fight for union recognition, higher wages, better working conditions, by striking. this lead to gained rights and respect of mexican americans after once having been greatly discriminated on.
Ralph Nader
wrote "unsafe at any speed" criticism of the auto industry for putting looks and luxury before safety.
Henry Kissinger
secretary of state under president ford.
George McGovern
an opponent of the war, he was a radical who wanted to get all soldiers out of vietnam as soon as possible. he also desired a program of income redistribution.
John Mitchell & CREEP: Committee to Reelect the President
helped the republican party/nixon in their espionage against the democrats.
Watergate
the scandal of the nixon administration causing the president to attemtp a coverup that was later revealed forcing him to resign the presidency before threats of impeachment.
Kent State University
after a riot broke out the national guard ended up killing some students that were innocently protesting the war and were unarmed.
SALT Treaty: Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
allowed each country (US and soviet union) 2 atomic bomb systems, one to protect it's capital city and one to defend a field of offensive missiles.
Marshall Plan
US program for the reconstruction of post WWII europe through massive aid to former enemy nations as well as allies.
CIA: Central Intelligence Agency & Central Intelligence Act of 1949
after the czech coup truman allowed the agency to not only gather and analyze intelligence but also engage in convert operations abroad. the act authorized the agency to pursue operations without congress's approval.
Sputnik
the first artificial sattelite to orbit the earth launched by the soviet union
Josef Stalin
the leader of the soviet union
Alger Hiss & Whittaker Chambers
hiss was a state department official who denied the allegation that he gave secret government documentations to chambers who spied for soviet military intelligence. proof however eventually showed that he was a soviet agent.
Douglas MacArthur
head of occupation forces in japan during the cold war. he imposed on japan a new democratic constitution that included permanent stopping of war.
Dennis v the United States
the court upheld the smith act, with the majoirty agreeing that the threat of communists departing from the truman doctrine was serious. the right of freedom of speech could only be limited if the exercise of it posed a clear danger.
John Foster Dulles
president truman's secretary of state, he agreed with his anti-communist views, he thought that US had to take responsibility for collective security and should continue the policy of containment.
Iran-Contra affair
a scandal involving the sale of arms to iran in partial exchange for release of US hostages in lebanon and money to aid the contras in nicaragua. all of this was clearly forbidden by congress.
Domino theory
eisenhower's theory explaining his worry that if vietnam fell to the communists, countries surrounding it would become vulnerable and might fall as well.
Nikita Khrushchev
a soviet leader who agreed that war between soviet union and US was not necissarily necessary and peace could exist.
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
passed by congress in reaction to supposed unprovoked attacks on american warships off the coast of north vietnam. the resolution gave the president unlimited authority to defend US forces
Rosenberg trial
the rosenbergs were convicted of obtaining technical information about atomic bomb during war and passing it to the soviets.
Ngo Diem
the leader of south vietnam after the nation's division. he was an anti-communist and catholic who had strong ties with US and catholicism.
Rosa Parks
a civil rights activist who refused to sit in the back of a public bus, opposing segregation laws, and causing the montgomery bus boycott
Yom Kippur War/ OPEC: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
egypt and syria attacked israel, US offered to mediate the conflict and ended up fighting on israel's side until the end of the war when they had to force the israelis to stop fighting by threatening to cut off ties and aid. in retaliation, major parts of the OPEC, egypt and syria embargoed the shipment of oil into the US, damagin our economy
NAACP: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
a civil rights organization that brought lawsuits against discriminatory practices and published the crisis journal
Cuban Missile Crisis
cause when US discovered soviet offensive missile sites in cuba. the US soviet confrontation was the cold war's closest brush with nuclear war.
Hubert Humphrey
at the democratic national convention he insisted on amending the platform so that it called for abolition of the poll tax, a federal antilynching law, a permanent fair employment practices commission, and desegregation of the armed forces. the convention adopted the reform.
Freedom Riders
the montgomery bus boycotters
New Right
a conservative turn of US society socially, politically and economically.
Stokely Carmichael
a civil rights activist who lead the SNCC: Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee
Muhammad Ali
black bosing champion who refused his draft on account of his muslim beliefs and objection to war, causing a new trend of objection to draft calls.
Dr. Benjamin Spock
wrote "common sense book of baby and child care" it emphasized that infants and children needed the devotion of full-time mothers
Hippies & Communes
sharing housing, property, bodies, beds. wherever they lived many displayed their contempt for consumerism by dressing in unusual ways.
Silent Majority
southern, white conservatives who were fed up with liberals.
Mayor Richard Daley
lead his police force to inappropriate justice by hurting many protesters and demonstrators.
Yippies
people of the youth international party who mocked the government
EPA: Environmental Protection Agency
created during nixon's presidency to oversee federal pollution control efforts.
William Westmoreland
US commander in vietnam who kept the war going but continuously asking for more soldiers to be sent over to the war.
Rachel Carson and Silent Spring
she was a biologist who wrote "silent spring" about how pesticides were poisoning humans and nature, explaining the concern americans should have for the environment.
Pentagon Papers & Daniel Ellsberg
an informal name for the defense department's secret history of vietnam conflict. it was leaked to the press by former official daniel ellsberg and published in the new york times.
War Powers Act of 1973
congress attempted to restrict a president's power to make war indefinitely his own while allowing him enough responsibility to counter immediate threats to national security.
Title IX
required colleges to engage in affirmative action for women
Nixon Doctrine
US wouldn't act as a military protagonist in combating communist subversion in the third world.
1972 coup in Chile
the us was nervous that chile would become communist so they stopped all economic aid until they were sure that the country was stabilized and not communist.