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17 Cards in this Set

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EARLY MONTHS IN NEW YORK AND OHIO
No special Black policy, mention of them in Church attitudes
“Black Pete” among first converts in Ohio
July 1831: W.W. Phelps opens mission in Missouri for “all the families of the earth,” mentions Blacks as among primary audience
LATE 1831 TO EARLY 1832: Mormons migration to Missouri sharply increases
Factors in Missouri’s political climate at the time
popular belief that free Blacks promoted slave revolts
Missouri’s being disallowed statehood for its barring free Blacks from the state 10 years earlier
Nat Turner and the southern phobia of slave insurrection
LATE 1831 TO EARLY 1832 (continued)
Rumor generated that Mormons were “tampering” with Missourian slaves
Mormon leadership agrees to investigate, prosecute “any person who might […] violate the law of the land by stirring up the blacks to an insurrection, or in any degree dissuade them from being perfectly obedient to their masters.”
One accusation made, rumors continue all the same
1833
Evening and Morning Star, W.W. Phelps: article published on special restrictions on Black immigration to Missouri
Missourians see article as an invitation to free Blacks in other states to settle, causes political tension
Outgrowths of tension: mob violence, destruction of the Star press, expulsion of Mormons from Jackson County
LATE 1833 TO 1834
December 1833: Joseph Smith received Sec. 101: “It is not right that any man should be in bondage to another.”
Scholars disagree on scripture’s meaning—seems clear, interestingly not tied to slavery in early Church discourses but used in 1969 pronouncement on Church’s Black policy
January 1834: Evening and Morning Star rebuttal of previous statements
1835
New edition of the Doctrine and Covenants features Sec. 102 (now 134) on government, “adopted by unanimous vote at a general assembly” at Kirtland
No comment on the morality of slavery, only on Mormon missionary interaction with slaves
Passage became somewhat official Church position on slavery
1836
Small anti-slavery society founded in Kirtland, Ohio, by a traveling abolitionist
Church continued to be charged by Southerners with anti-slavery activity in Missouri
April 1836 Messenger and Advocate: Church leaders (J. Smith, O. Cowdery, W. Parrish) publish outspoken rebuttal of abolitionism—used frequently in missionary, civil discussions to substantiate Church’s claim of not being against slavery
Joseph Smith’s five main objections to abolitionism
Abolition of Black slaves was “calculated to […] set loose, upon the world a community of people who might peradventure, overrun our country and violate the most sacred principles of human society,--chastity and virtue…”
“Men of piety” in the South did not seem to oppose the supposedly evil institution of slavery
“The people of the North have [do not] have any more right to say that the South shall not hold slaves, than the South have to say the North shall”
The Blacks, as the Sons of Canaan, were cursed with servitude by Jehovah, which curse was “not yet taken off the sons of Canaan, neither will be until it is affected by as great power as caused it to come […] and those who are determined to pursue a course which shows an opposition […] against the designs of the Lord, will learn […] that God can do his work without the aid of those who are not dictated by his counsel”
Biblical precedent for slavery in Leviticus, Ephesians, Timothy, life of Abraham
March 1842 Times and Seasons: Smith publishes his antislavery correspondence with Bennett: marks a “VIRTUAL REVERSAL” of the published Mormon stance on slavery

Possible reasons for change:
Smith’s deepened acquaintance with, exposure to Blacks and integrated society
Slavery issue no longer threatening to the Mormons—out of slaveholding state
Willard Richards, John C. Bennett provide new, more liberal voices on slavery
April 1836 Messenger and Advocate (continued)
Warrin Parrish’s arguments in opposition to abolition of Black slaves

Possible reasons for change:
The divinely-inspired Constitution sanctioned slavery, people should be able to live within its freedoms
Curse on Ham was in effect and would continue until a prophet of God receives revelation otherwise—abolitionist societies were powerless until such a time
Release of slaves: danger to society
1844
Prophet consistently opposes slavery in public, private writings from 1842 until his death in 1844
Presidential campaign’s platform: “Views on the Government and Policy of the U.S.”
Plan for elimination of slavery within six years through federal compensation of slaveholders
1849
Slavery question follows Saints into the Salt Lake Valley: the statehood question
Southerners for extending slavery into West, Northerners opposed
Young and team draft Constitution of Deseret
No reference to slavery
1850
December Frontier Guardian outlines “laissez-faire” Mormon policy on slavery in Utah
No law authorizes or prohibits slavery
Slaves at liberty to leave masters or refuse to come West with their owners
1852
Mexican-Indian slave trade and their sale to Mormons raises further questions
Mexican-Indian slave trade and their sale to Mormons raises further questions
Creates distinct policies for black and Indian slavery
Condones buying Indian children to liberate, raise, care for, and educate: “a new feature in the traffic of human beings”
On black slavery
No longer free to leave masters at will
Had to consent to immigrate to/emigrate from Territory
Slave progeny not obligated to work longer than will satisfy debt to owner
Contract void if owner has sexual intercourse with slave, neglects to feed, clothe, etc. servant adequately
Some schooling required for slaves ages 6 to 20
On Indian slavery
Owners required to prove proper qualifications for raising the Indians
Indenture limited to 20 years
Indians must be clothed in a “comfortable and becoming manner” according to owner’s status
Full-time schooling required for slaves ages 6 to 17
1860 to 1866
1862: Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation, effective the following year
Congress extends Constitutional rights universally
Racial restrictions eliminated from constitution of Utah