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64 Cards in this Set

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This court order (“writ”) requires a person to be brought before a judge.
Habeas Corpus
This is a term that denotes the trend of big businesses controlling most of the agricultural production in the U.S.
Agribusiness
This is a person who is not a citizen of the state in which they reside.
Example: There are legal and illegal types of these.
Alien
This is a method by which the Constitution may be changed or added to.
Amendment Process
This is the authority of a court to hear or review a case after it has been decided at a lower court level.
Appellate Jurisdiction
This means to formally reprimand a member of Congress or the Federal government for their actions. It has no force of law.
Censure
This is the system of overlapping powers among judicial, executive, and legislative branches to allow each branch to oversee the actions of the others
Checks And Balances
This is a part of the Federal government that gathers and analyzes information about foreign governments and activities and their possible impact on the safety and security of the United States.
CIA
This is the body of law that regulates interactions between individuals in a state
Civil Law
In Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States (1964), the Supreme Court ruled not only that states had to following the law spelled out in this law from the same year as the case, but that the law itself was constitutional.
Civil Rights Act
Powers that are held by both the federal and state governments.
Example: Power to tax, to enforce laws
Concurrent Powers
This is a legally granted exclusive right to produce a literary, musical, or artistic work for a given period of time.
Copyright
This is the body of law that codifies what a state defines as legal and/or illegal as well as the punishments for the violations of the laws.
Criminal Law
This means segregation that is mandated by law. This kind of segregation is unconstitutional.
Example: A subdivision cannot prevent people of a certain race (or races) from living there.
De Jure
This is the part of the Department of Justice whose task it is to enforce the nation’s drug laws.
DEA
Powers specifically given to the government by the Constitution.
Example: regulate interstate commerce
Delegated Powers
This is a system of government in which the people participate directly in making all public policy.
Example: Town Hall meetings
Direct Democracy
This is the act of being tried or punished for the same crime by the same government. This is forbidden under the U.S. Constitution.
Double Jeopardy
This is a policy that the government’s actions towards its citizens must follow established rules and procedures.
Example: This is the right of an accused to a lawyer.
Due Process
This amendment prohibited the sale and use of alcoholic beverages
Eighteenth
This is a statement in the U.S. Constitution granting Congress the power to pass all laws necessary and proper for carrying out the enumerated list of powers.
Elastic Clause
This is the gathering of electors from each state following the Presidential election and the group who formally casts their ballots for their party’s presidential candidate.
Example: They actually elect the President, but it is largely a formality.
Electoral College
This is a law that punishes someone for an act that is now illegal but was not when the person committed it. These types of laws are illegal in the United States.
Ex Post Facto
These are powers that can only be executed by the federal government.
Example: This is the power to wage war, control interstate commerce
Exclusive Powers
This is the branch of government that is responsible for carrying out the laws.
Example: President, cabinet, CIA, FBI
Executive
This is an edict from a President (or Governor) that has the force of law without having to be passed or approved by Congress (or a state legislature).
Executive Order
This is the part of the Department of Justice that investigates crimes and protects the country’s internal security interests.
FBI
This is the part of the Federal government that, among other things, regulates and licenses civilian radio and television companies.
FCC
This is the part of the Federal Department of Health and Human Services that regulates and enforces laws about food production and standards in the United States.
FDA
This system of government has powers divided between the central government This system of government has powers divided between the central government and regional governments, with central government being supreme.
Example: U. S. and German governments
Federalism
This is an election in which the people choose from among the candidates nominated by the various political parties.
Example: First Tuesday after the first Monday in November
General Election
This is the formal accusation against a Federal (or state) official for wrong-doing while in office. It is the first step in the process of removing the official from office.
Impeachment
Powers that are not expressed but that the government may be inferred to have from another power.
Example: construction of airports
Implied Powers
This is the branch of government that is responsible for interpreting what the law means.
Example: court system
Judicial
This is the authority of a court to hear and try a case
Judicial Jurisdiction
This is the power of a court to review a law or an official act of a government employee or agent for constitutionality or for the violation of basic principles of justice.
Example: Marbury v. Madison
Judicial Review
This is the branch of government that creates and makes laws.
Example: Senate and House of Representatives
Legislative
This is a ruling body that is not all powerful, but is restricted in what it may do by certain rights guaranteed to the people which may not be abolished or taken away from the people.
Example: U.S, English governments
Limited Government
These are actions of an interest group or agents to influence the policy of the governments.
Example: NRA, AARP
Lobbying
This is the tendency of more broadly interpreting the meaning of laws, especially Constitutional Amendments.
Example: “Liberal” judges often practice this, interpreting the laws for their underlying meanings or their intent when being created, rather than simply going by the law’s exact words.
Loose Interpretation
This is an activity found in many high schools, colleges, and law schools in which participants gain practical experience as to the legal workings of courts of law. They are, in a sense, practice or “mock” courts.
Moot Court
This is the process by which one becomes a citizen of a country if that person was not born in that country.
Naturalization
This is the acronym for a phenomenon in which people oppose a development or construction of a project that people want but not close the them.
Example: Prisons, garbage dumps, and half-way houses are examples of these situations.
NIMBY
This amendment gave women the right to vote
Nineteenth
This is the authority of a court to hear a case for the first time
Original Jurisdiction
This is a political organization within a business or industry that is legally allowed to raise money for candidates who favor or are sympathetic to the group’s cause(s).
PAC
These are powers of a government to promote safety, public health, and welfare of its citizens.
Example: establishing marshall law
Police Powers
This payment was meant to keep certain groups of people (mainly former slaves and African-Americans) from being allowed to vote.
Example: This was outlawed in the United States by the 24th Amendment.
Poll Tax
This is the belief that the ultimate power of the government rests on the will of the people themselves.
Popular Sovereignty
This is the smallest division of a voting district and is the actual place where a person goes to vote in an election
Precinct
This is the presiding officer of the Senate who is from the majority party and who serves as the leader when the Vice-President of the United States is absent
President Pro Tempore
This is an election in which the political parties choose their candidates to run for specific offices.
Example: elections held throughout spring to elect candidates for parties
Primary
This is a proposed law that is placed on the ballot for the general public to approve or disapprove for passage.
Proposition
This is the process the people use to remove an elected official from office.
Example: This is the removal of Governor Gray Davis in California
Recall
This is a form of government run by elected leaders.
Example: US government
Republic
These are powers that are held for the states to execute, not for the federal government.
Example: This is the power to regulate marriages
Reserved Powers
This is the policy that the law making, executive, and judicial powers be held by different groups and people.
Example: A system of checks and balances is put in place to ensure that each branch is equal.
Separation Of Powers
This amendment provided for the direct election of U.S. senators.
Seventeenth
This is the absolute power of a government within its own territory.
Example: Puerto Rico and colonies do not have this
Sovereignty
This is the presiding officer of the House of Representatives and is chosen from the majority party in the House.
Speaker Of The House
This is the tendency of more narrowing interpreting the meaning of laws, especially Constitutional Amendments.
Example: “Conservative” judges often practice this, judging on the exact words of what the laws say and leaving out intent or underlying meanings of the laws.
Strict Interpretation
This is the name given to the US law that requires that there be no discrimination in any aspect of education based on the basis of sex.
Example: Title IX has resulted in vast increases in opportunities for women in the field of athletics and science.
Title IX
This is the power of the executive to prevent a bill from passing.
Example: Presidential power
Veto
This is a formal request to have a case heard or reviewed by an appellate court. This is the way most cases get to the Supreme Court.
Writ Of Certiorari