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58 Cards in this Set

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housing act 1937
Created US housing authority, public housing and slum clearance. Lobbying of NAREB
-Organizations such as NAREB argued for subsities for private rather than public
Housing act of 1949
"decent home and suitable living environment"
-Title 1: urban redevelopment
-Title 2: Public housing
-Slum clearance, public housing, expanced housing ensurance through the FHA.
-new and powerful mechanism for transforming land use in central cities.
-local power could redirect the acts intentions
-Robert Moses
-Used downtown to build what he wanted
-Act could be used to advance redevelopment agendas for downtown rather than meet housing needs of the poor
housing act of 1954
"urban renewal"
-Urban renewal (similar to urban regeneration in British English) is a program of land re-development in areas of moderate to high density urban land use. Its modern incarnation began in the late 19th century in developed nations and experienced an intense phase in the late 1940s - under the rubric of reconstruction.
-Urban renewal can be extremely controversial, and has often involved the destruction of businesses, the demolition of priceless historic structures, the relocation of people, and the use of eminent domain (known as compulsory purchase in the UK) as a legal instrument to reclaim private property for city-initiated development projects.
-Urban renewal's effect on actual revitalization is a subject of intense debate. It has been seen by proponents as an economic engine and a reform mechanism, and by opponents as a regressive mechanism for enriching the wealthy at the expense of taxpayers and the poor. It carries a high cost to existing communities, and in many cases resulted in the destruction of vibrant neighborhoods.
Fair housing act of 1968/1988
-Prohibits discrimination in housing because of: race or coloar, national origin, religion, sex, familial status (e.g. pregnancy, custody of a minor) disability.
-President Lyndon Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968
Hope VI programs
-A recent effort to disperse and eliminate concentrated poverty and poor housing is the HOPE VI (Federal Program)
-1992
-.2M public housing units housing about 2.8 M people
-Fundamentally, the place- and project-based nature of the program trapped tens of thousands of very low income people in neighborhoods that were poor in economic, social, and cultural infrastructure and resources.
-The basic idea of HOPE VI is to deconcentrate (desegregate) poverty by assisting individual households with (portable) voucher support, and by developing an infrastructure of mixed-income neighborhoods
5 objectives of Hope programs
1)a. Changing the physical shape of public housing by replacing the worst public housing developments with apartments or townhouses that become part of their surrounding communities.
2)Reducing concentrations of poverty by encouraging a greater income mix among public housing residents and by encouraging working families to move into public housing and into new market-rate housing being built as part of the neighborhoods where public housing is located.
3)Establishing support services to help public housing residents get and keep jobs.
4). Establishing and enforcing high standards of personal and community responsibility.
5)Forging broad-based partnerships in planning and implementing improvements in public housing.”
HOPE VI principles for inner-city design
“Diversity: A broad range of housing types and prices will bring people of diverse ages, races and incomes into daily interaction, strengthening the personal and civic bonds essential to an authentic community.

Safety and Civic Engagement: The relationship of buildings and streets should enable neighbors to create a safe neighborhood by providing "eyes on the street" and should encourage interaction and community identity.

Neighborhoods: Neighborhoods should be compact, with shops, schools, parks and other activities of daily life available within walking distance.

Local architectural character: The image and character of new development should respond to the best architectural traditions in the area.

Streets and public open space: Neighborhoods should have an interconnected network of streets and public open spaces to provide opportunities for recreation and appropriate settings for civic activities.”
Potential problems: HOPE VI
Reduces stock of housing for very lowest income group because average cost to tenant increases. It also reduces actual stock of housing, since fewer units are built or rehabbed than are demolished. And in some cases the people moving into the new units are not those displaced from the old ones.

We looked at HOPE VI projects in the First Ward of Charlotte NC and in North Albany. There are strong parallels in Hope VI ideals and those of the New Urbanism.
1926 Village of Euclid Ohio vs. Ambler Realty:
The landmark case in which the US Supreme Court upheld the legality of zoning, which became the principal means of regulating the American urban landscape. Congress passes Standard State Zoning Enabling Act (SSZEA) in 1926 (developed by Herbert Hoover, Secretary of Commerce).
1975 Mount Laurel decision
Cases filed by NAACP in the late 60's. First decision in 1975. The New Jersey Supreme court, in a series of decisions between 1975 and 1985 known as Mount Laurel 1. 2. and 3, ruled that every municipality has a state constitutional obligation to provide its fair share of its regional need for low and moderate income housing .
-"builders remedy" (higher density allowed, if a portion of the project devoted to "affordable" housing
The definition of "family" in zoning
Specifies the maximum number of unrelated people that can live together
-works against "non traditional families
-research shows definitions have racial implications
Belle Terre v. Boraas
-is a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court upheld the constitutionality of a residential zoning ordinance that limited the number of unrelated individuals who may inhabit a dwelling.
-Appellees Dickmans leased house in December 1971 to Michael Truman, Bruce Boraas, Anne Parish, and other students at nearby State University at Stony Brook. The Village of Belle Terre served the Dickmans with an "Order to Remedy Violation."
-Court of Appeals judgment reversed.
incentive zoning
First implemented in Chicago and New York City, incentive zoning is intended to provide a reward-based system to encourage development that meets established urban development goals.[citation needed] Typically, a base level of prescriptive limitations on development will be established and an extensive list of incentive criteria will be established for developers to adopt or not at their discretion. A reward scale connected to the incentive criteria provides an enticement for developers to incorporate the desired development criteria into their projects. Common examples include FAR (floor-area-ratio) bonuses for affordable housing provided on-site, and height limit bonuses for the inclusion of public amenities on-site.

Incentive zoning allows for a high degree of flexibility, but can be complex to administer. The more a proposed development takes advantage of incentive criteria, the more closely it has to be reviewed on a discretionary basis. The initial creation of the incentive structure in order to best serve planning priorities can also be challenging and often requires extensive ongoing revision to maintain balance between incentive magnitude and value given to developers.
Fair housing act of 1968/1988
-Prohibits discrimination in housing because of: race or coloar, national origin, religion, sex, familial status (e.g. pregnancy, custody of a minor) disability.
-President Lyndon Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968
Hope VI programs
-A recent effort to disperse and eliminate concentrated poverty and poor housing is the HOPE VI (Federal Program)
-1992
-.2M public housing units housing about 2.8 M people
-Fundamentally, the place- and project-based nature of the program trapped tens of thousands of very low income people in neighborhoods that were poor in economic, social, and cultural infrastructure and resources.
-The basic idea of HOPE VI is to deconcentrate (desegregate) poverty by assisting individual households with (portable) voucher support, and by developing an infrastructure of mixed-income neighborhoods
5 objectives of Hope programs
1)a. Changing the physical shape of public housing by replacing the worst public housing developments with apartments or townhouses that become part of their surrounding communities.
2)Reducing concentrations of poverty by encouraging a greater income mix among public housing residents and by encouraging working families to move into public housing and into new market-rate housing being built as part of the neighborhoods where public housing is located.
3)Establishing support services to help public housing residents get and keep jobs.
4). Establishing and enforcing high standards of personal and community responsibility.
5)Forging broad-based partnerships in planning and implementing improvements in public housing.”
HOPE VI principles for inner-city design
“Diversity: A broad range of housing types and prices will bring people of diverse ages, races and incomes into daily interaction, strengthening the personal and civic bonds essential to an authentic community.

Safety and Civic Engagement: The relationship of buildings and streets should enable neighbors to create a safe neighborhood by providing "eyes on the street" and should encourage interaction and community identity.

Neighborhoods: Neighborhoods should be compact, with shops, schools, parks and other activities of daily life available within walking distance.

Local architectural character: The image and character of new development should respond to the best architectural traditions in the area.

Streets and public open space: Neighborhoods should have an interconnected network of streets and public open spaces to provide opportunities for recreation and appropriate settings for civic activities.”
Potential problems: HOPE VI
Reduces stock of housing for very lowest income group because average cost to tenant increases. It also reduces actual stock of housing, since fewer units are built or rehabbed than are demolished. And in some cases the people moving into the new units are not those displaced from the old ones.

We looked at HOPE VI projects in the First Ward of Charlotte NC and in North Albany. There are strong parallels in Hope VI ideals and those of the New Urbanism.
Fordism
-modernist urban landscape developed in a series of accommodations among big business, big unions, and big government.
-Fordism was based not only upon revolutionary changes in production technology, but also on revolutionary changes in consumption - the creation and continual acceleration of demand.
-At the time of the New Deal the economic philosophy of Keynesianism justified large-scale and continuing state intervention in the built urban environment which continued through the 1970s (e.g. subsidies and inducements to home ownership, Interstate Highway Program, public housing, and many other programs). There were particularly strong incentives, through such means as tax breaks, mortgage insurance, and urban expressways, for middle class home ownership in the suburbs.
Jane Jacobs
The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 1961 (1993). In this book she was moved by the destruction of neighborhoods that she saw going on around her in New York under the urban renewal programs to write about the importance of mixed-use, small scale, diverse urban spaces, with a viable street life, informal control of space by “eyes on the street,” short blocks to promote unplanned interactions, a mix of new and old buildings, with a certain amount of spontaneity and untidiness. In the Death and Life, as well as in later work, she stressed the importance of such spaces to the economic well-being of cities, for example as incubators of small businesses. Her main focus was on street life and she had little to say about the effects of corporate capital. Her focus on domestic life, the family, and neighborliness has been described as a proto-feminist.
. William Whyte
William Whyte (1917-1999), like Jacobs, worked mainly outside of the academic world, and even more than she did, he concentrated on New York City. He was a close observer of human behavior in urban public spaces, in what he called his “street life project.” He used video technology as well as a great deal of field work to record real people's behavior. He arrived at many conclusions that went against design practices of the time. For example he showed that people like to be able to watch other people, and he argued that it is a bad idea to think of small urban and plazas as “refuges” to be shielded by design features from the pedestrian flow. He stressed the need for a certain intensity and diversity of street life both as a promoter and an indicator of the health of cities and neighborhoods. He wrote that one of his rules of thumb was to visit a city center at midday and count the flow of pedestrians. If there were less than 1000 people per hour “the city could pave the streets with gold for all the difference it would make.” He argued strongly against the trends to privatize and internalize urban public space with malls, skyways, arcades, atriums, and the like. In fact he claimed: “There is a holy war against the street.” He wrote critically of the “bonus plazas” that had been encouraged Manhattan’s incentive zoning (which granted additional FAR to developers for provision of public spaces beginning in 1961).
Lyn Lofland
Lyn Lofland is a contemporary sociologist. In The Public Realm (1998) she looks at the socially-defined distinction between the public and private realms, pointing to the ways in which the modernist built environment works against the traditional functions of the urban public sphere. The public realm for her, as well as for many other scholars including Habermas and Sennett, is important politically, socially and developmentally, as a realm of civil but impersonal social relations, for social interaction, and for discourse on matters of common interest. For her, traditional small-scale diverse urban public space is crucial to social well-being. Such spaces socialize people to tolerate and thrive on diversity and teach them to deal with “otherness.”
end of modernist urbanism
the dynamiting in 1972 of the Pruitt-Igoe project in St. Louis
-inaugurating a new era in American urbanism
postmodernity
Some theorists see postmodernity as a logical and non-so-radical phase in the development of capitalism. Others hail postmodernity as a radical break with the past, portending a whole new cultural order. For example, we discussed “postmodern” attitudes to individual and cultural identity including Jonathan Raban’s Soft City, Gloria Anzaldúa idea of nepantilism, and Sharon Zukin’s idea of liminality.
economic restructuring
-entailed deindustrialization, deskilling, downsizing, and decamping).
-
Result of shift in economy from manufacturing to service
-with all kinds of corollaries including loss of job security
-feminization of poverty
-exacerbation of the problems of the so-called urban underclass
-income polarization
-and a loss of the kind of monocentric structured around stable jobs and entrenched commuting patterns which was the king of order envisioned by human ecology and neoclassical urban economic
flexible capitalism or flexible accumulation.
shift in economy (manu.->service)
brownfields
Polluted industrial sites
ex
troy, cohoes, amsterdam
adaptive reuse
is the process of adapting old structures for purposes other than those initially intended.
City governments have become much more entrepreneurial in promoting development.
Mayor Al Jurczynski’s strategies for Schenectady including the plan of recruiting Guyanese immigrants.
BIDS
Business Improvement Districts) are especially important in attempts to revitalize downtown neighborhoods
Public-private partnership (PPP)
describes a government service or private business venture which is funded and operated through a partnership of government and one or more private sector companies.
-tend to produce signature projects
signature projects
Most of the projects are oriented toward consumption, art, and culture rather than production.
-MassMOCA in North Adams, MA is an excellent example of a manufacturing plant successfully recycled as a large art museum
James Rouse
major figure in developing signature consumption projects including Baltimore's Inner Harbor, Quincy Market and Faneuil Hall in Boston, and South Street Seaport in NYC.
What made it profitable to reinvest in existing properties?
-Changes in tax law and the economics of the construction trades
gentrification or upward filtering
the change in an urban area associated with the movement of more affluent individuals into a lower-class area.[2] The area experiences demographic shifts, including an increase in the median income, a reduction in household size, and often a decline in the proportion of racial minorities (if such minorities are present).[3] More households with higher incomes result in increased real estate values with higher associated rent, home prices, and property taxes. Industrial land use can decline with redevelopment bringing more commercial and residential use. Such changes often result in transformation of the neighborhood's character and culture
urban homesteading or urban frontier
often carried subtexts that the upgraded neighborhoods were outposts of civilization in savage and depopulated “urban wildernesses.” They often were depopulated, because after the immense destruction of the urban renewal programs, the inner city poor found themselves being priced out of the few remaining livable neighborhoods.
Transportation Act of 1966
forbade damaging or demolishing historic sites unless there is “no prudent and feasible alternative”
Historic Preservation Act 1966
established the National Register of Historic Places.
Tax Reforms Acts in the 1970s and 1980s
put in place tax incentives (e.g. creating investment tax credits for rehabilitating old structures and ending tax deductions for demolition).
1980s and gentrification
were the heyday of historic preservation and gentrification
The UDAG (Urban Development Action Grants)
was a program begun in 1977, providing a new approach to urban redevelopment.
-The older CDBG (Community Development Block Grant) program dating from was an entitlement program which funded a variety to local programs such as giving local authorities considerable discretion in the use of funds
UDAG funds...
used for many gentrification efforts but they also supported large-scale downtown “signature” projects.
Community Development Corporations (CDCs)
-They take many forms, dealing with issues such as economic development and affordable housing.
-ex banana kelly
-
PBCs public benefit service
-chartered by the state to provide public service
-ex)
-Schenectady Metroplex Development Authority is a PBC designed to improve employment and the sales and property tax base in Schenectady County (not just the city).
Theoretical perspectives based on economic and political motives as oppsed to housing, welfare of public etc.
-political economy approach
-growth machine model
-symbolic economy
Political economy approach
growth and development and the decline and fall of cities o not occur simply by happenstance
-model based on marxian orientation
-
Urban growth machine
John Logan
land parcels were not empty fields awaiting human action, but were associated with specific interests--commercial, sentimental, and psychological. Especially important in shaping cities were the real estate interests of those whose properties gain value when growth takes place. These actors make up what Molotch termed "the local growth machine" -- a term now standard in the urban studies lexicon. From this perspective, cities need to be studied (and compared) in terms of the organization, lobbying, manipulating, and structuring carried out by these actors. The outcome--the shape of cities and the distribution of their peoples--is thus not due to interpersonal market of geographic necessities, but to social actions, including opportunistic dealing. Urban Fortunes has influenced hundreds of national and international studies.
symbolic economy/cultural approach (Zukin).
-studied changes in NYC
-Emergence of symbolic economy
-tourism, media, entertain. etc.
-Symbolic economy
-cultural strategies of urban redevelopment and the privitization of public space
-ways which cultural symbols of a place are combined with capitalist activity
-takes 3 forms:
1. profit from imagery
2. concerns for profit throughout real estate developments
3. traditional "place entepeneur"
-museums, parks, monuments
van jones and green collar economy
The Green Collar Economy How One Solution Can Fix Our Two Biggest Problems outlines author Van Jones's plan for simultaneously solving socioeconomic inequality and environmental problems.
The book is a detailed proposal for a "green new deal". There is the opportunity to create thousands of low- and medium-skill jobs that help conserve energy (for example, insulating older homes and buildings) or use alternate energy sources (solar panels). These are local jobs that can't be exported. With appropriate incentives and programs, the jobs can be created in inner cities and thereby help lift people out of poverty. According to Jones, we can ensure the "approaching green wave lifts all boats." In the book, Jones calls for a mass movement to tackle our ecological and economic crises.
David rusk and elasticity
elastic city:
-outriight annexation albuquerqie, phoenix
-city/county consolidation nashville, inianapolis
-promote large taxing units such as a unified school districts
sprawl and consequences
excessive auto use
environmental damage
loss of farmland
loss of history
financial costs
traffic problems
harm to central cities
exurbs
rich commuter communities beyond the suburbs
relatively free standing ( not contiguous to sprawl)
lower density
auto dependent
key attributes:
-outer ring
-high status
-jobs in city
(infill converts exurbs to suburbs ex forest hills, queens)
edge city
-joel garreau
-3 types:
1. boomer at two major highways
2. uptowns - pre automobile settlement
3. greenfields- planned
Edge city is an American term for a concentration of business, shopping, and entertainment outside a traditional urban area in what had recently been a residential suburb or semi-rural community.
Garreau argues that the edge city has become the standard form of urban growth worldwide, representing a 20th-century urban form unlike that of the 19th-century central downtown. Other terms for the areas include suburban activity centers, megacenters, and suburban business districts.[1]
edgeless city
robert lang. V. tech
Even farther down the radar than edge cities
large buildings inaccessible to pedestrians and mass transit, highly dispersed office functions
- not percieved as one place, polite way of saying office sprawl
james howard kunstler
-public realm and common good James Howard Kunstler (born in 1948, New York City, New York) is an American author, social critic, public speaker, and blogger. He is best known for his books The Geography of Nowhere (1994), a history of American suburbia and urban development, and the more recent The Long Emergency (2005), where he argues that declining oil production is likely to result in the end of industrialized society as we know it and force Americans to live in smaller-scale, localized, agrarian (or semi-agrarian) communities. He has written a science fiction novel conjecturing such a culture in the future, World Made by Hand in 2008. He also gives lectures on topics related to suburbia, urban development, and the challenges of what he calls "the global oil predicament" and a resultant change in the “American Way of Life.” He is also a leading proponent of the movement known as "New Urbanism."
Andres DUany and elizabeth plater zybeck
Duany and Plater-Zyberk founded Duany Plater Zyberk & Company (DPZ) in 1980, headquartered in Miami, Florida. DPZ became a leader in the national movement called the New Urbanism, which seeks to end suburban sprawl and urban disinvestment. The firm first received international recognition in the 1980s as the designer of Seaside, Florida and Kentlands, Maryland, and has completed designs and codes for over two hundred new towns, regional plans, and community revitalization projects. At DPZ, Duany also led the development of comprehensive municipal zoning ordinances that prescribe appropriate urban arrangement for all uses and all densities.

Duany is a co-founder and emeritus board member of the Congress for the New Urbanism, established in 1993. He has co-authored two books: "Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream" and "The New Civic Art." Duany has worked as visiting professor at many institutions and holds two honorary doctorates.
smart growth
based on the experience of communities around the nation that have used smarth growth appraches to create and maintain great neighborhoods, the smart growth network developed a set of ten basic principles:
mix land uses
take advantage of compact building designs
-create a range of housing opportunities an choices
-create walkable neighborhoods
-foster distinctive, attractive communites with a strong sense of place
-presrve open space
-strengthen and direct decelopment
-and a shit load more bullshit I don't give a flying fuck about